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Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome.

Perez Perez GI, Gao Z, Jourdain R, Ramirez J, Gany F, Clavaud C, Demaude J, Breton L, Blaser MJ - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups.We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants.We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp) in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City.

Methods: Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis.

Results: Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites.

Conclusions: We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

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Analysis of cutaneous microbiota by ethnicity.The results are from 6 ethnic groups, including Caucasian-American (n = 20/site), African-American (n = 18/site), American-Continental (n = 11/site), Latin American (n = 16/site) East Asian (n = 25/site), and South Asian (n = 20/site). Panel A. Alpha diversity represented by phylogenetic distances. Arm, significant differences were found between EA vs. LA and AA; and SA vs. LA. Axilla, between EA vs. AA, LA and CA. Scalp, between EA vs. AC and CA; AA vs. AC and CA. The ethnic groups are colored as described in Fig 1. Panel B. PCoA of clustering by ethnic group, based on unweighted pairwise Unifrac distances. The circles represent the distribution of the East Asian samples. Panel C. Intra- and inter-group beta-diversity analysis on skin location at baseline. Mean (±SD) pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances shown. The * symbol indicate that the intra-group beta diversity was significantly different (p<0.001).
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pone.0151990.g003: Analysis of cutaneous microbiota by ethnicity.The results are from 6 ethnic groups, including Caucasian-American (n = 20/site), African-American (n = 18/site), American-Continental (n = 11/site), Latin American (n = 16/site) East Asian (n = 25/site), and South Asian (n = 20/site). Panel A. Alpha diversity represented by phylogenetic distances. Arm, significant differences were found between EA vs. LA and AA; and SA vs. LA. Axilla, between EA vs. AA, LA and CA. Scalp, between EA vs. AC and CA; AA vs. AC and CA. The ethnic groups are colored as described in Fig 1. Panel B. PCoA of clustering by ethnic group, based on unweighted pairwise Unifrac distances. The circles represent the distribution of the East Asian samples. Panel C. Intra- and inter-group beta-diversity analysis on skin location at baseline. Mean (±SD) pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances shown. The * symbol indicate that the intra-group beta diversity was significantly different (p<0.001).

Mentions: To assess baseline differences between ethnic groups, including the use of deodorants and shampoos, analyses among the different groups were performed using the samples obtained at Time 1 (Fig 3). Similar to the observations above (S3 Fig), alpha-diversity measured by Phylogenetic Differences (PD) was higher in the arm than in scalp or axilla, independent of the group (Fig 3, Panel A). The lowest alpha diversity was observed in the axilla for all 6 groups. PD of the samples from the three skin sites in the East Asian men was significantly lower than for the other groups, including African-American and Latin-American in arm; African-American, Caucasian-American and Latin-American in axilla, and African-Continental and Caucasian-American in scalp (p<0.05). Significant differences in PD between the six groups included South-Asians significantly lower than Latin-Americans in arm; and African-Americans significantly lower than African-Continental and Caucasian-Americans in scalp (Fig 3, Panel A). Studies based on numbers of observed species as another metric to ascertain alpha diversity showed similar results (data not shown).


Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome.

Perez Perez GI, Gao Z, Jourdain R, Ramirez J, Gany F, Clavaud C, Demaude J, Breton L, Blaser MJ - PLoS ONE (2016)

Analysis of cutaneous microbiota by ethnicity.The results are from 6 ethnic groups, including Caucasian-American (n = 20/site), African-American (n = 18/site), American-Continental (n = 11/site), Latin American (n = 16/site) East Asian (n = 25/site), and South Asian (n = 20/site). Panel A. Alpha diversity represented by phylogenetic distances. Arm, significant differences were found between EA vs. LA and AA; and SA vs. LA. Axilla, between EA vs. AA, LA and CA. Scalp, between EA vs. AC and CA; AA vs. AC and CA. The ethnic groups are colored as described in Fig 1. Panel B. PCoA of clustering by ethnic group, based on unweighted pairwise Unifrac distances. The circles represent the distribution of the East Asian samples. Panel C. Intra- and inter-group beta-diversity analysis on skin location at baseline. Mean (±SD) pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances shown. The * symbol indicate that the intra-group beta diversity was significantly different (p<0.001).
© Copyright Policy
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835103&req=5

pone.0151990.g003: Analysis of cutaneous microbiota by ethnicity.The results are from 6 ethnic groups, including Caucasian-American (n = 20/site), African-American (n = 18/site), American-Continental (n = 11/site), Latin American (n = 16/site) East Asian (n = 25/site), and South Asian (n = 20/site). Panel A. Alpha diversity represented by phylogenetic distances. Arm, significant differences were found between EA vs. LA and AA; and SA vs. LA. Axilla, between EA vs. AA, LA and CA. Scalp, between EA vs. AC and CA; AA vs. AC and CA. The ethnic groups are colored as described in Fig 1. Panel B. PCoA of clustering by ethnic group, based on unweighted pairwise Unifrac distances. The circles represent the distribution of the East Asian samples. Panel C. Intra- and inter-group beta-diversity analysis on skin location at baseline. Mean (±SD) pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances shown. The * symbol indicate that the intra-group beta diversity was significantly different (p<0.001).
Mentions: To assess baseline differences between ethnic groups, including the use of deodorants and shampoos, analyses among the different groups were performed using the samples obtained at Time 1 (Fig 3). Similar to the observations above (S3 Fig), alpha-diversity measured by Phylogenetic Differences (PD) was higher in the arm than in scalp or axilla, independent of the group (Fig 3, Panel A). The lowest alpha diversity was observed in the axilla for all 6 groups. PD of the samples from the three skin sites in the East Asian men was significantly lower than for the other groups, including African-American and Latin-American in arm; African-American, Caucasian-American and Latin-American in axilla, and African-Continental and Caucasian-American in scalp (p<0.05). Significant differences in PD between the six groups included South-Asians significantly lower than Latin-Americans in arm; and African-Americans significantly lower than African-Continental and Caucasian-Americans in scalp (Fig 3, Panel A). Studies based on numbers of observed species as another metric to ascertain alpha diversity showed similar results (data not shown).

Bottom Line: Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups.We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants.We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp) in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City.

Methods: Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis.

Results: Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites.

Conclusions: We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

Show MeSH