Limits...
Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome.

Perez Perez GI, Gao Z, Jourdain R, Ramirez J, Gany F, Clavaud C, Demaude J, Breton L, Blaser MJ - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups.We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants.We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp) in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City.

Methods: Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis.

Results: Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites.

Conclusions: We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of diversity of the cutaneous microbiota over time, by ethnic group.Panel A. Rarefaction analysis of cutaneous microbiota in relation to sampling time in samples from arms (Brown), axilla (Black) and scalp (Yellow), African-American (AA, n = 108 samples); African-Continental (AC, n = 66); Caucasian-American (CA, n = 96); East-Asian (EA, n = 150); Latin-American (LA, n = 114); South-Asian (SA, n = 96). Rarefaction analysis represented by phylogenetic distance. The solid and dashed lines indicate samples collected before (T1) and after (T2) a special soap wash was used, respectively. Only a significant difference between time-points was found for the SA group. Panel B. Intra- and inter-group beta-diversity over time. Mean (±SD) pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances are shown. The ethnic groups are colored as described in Fig 1. Significance was determined by one-way ANOVA with the Tukey method for correction for multiple comparisons (*<0.05; **<0.01; ***<0.001; ****<0.0001).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835103&req=5

pone.0151990.g002: Comparison of diversity of the cutaneous microbiota over time, by ethnic group.Panel A. Rarefaction analysis of cutaneous microbiota in relation to sampling time in samples from arms (Brown), axilla (Black) and scalp (Yellow), African-American (AA, n = 108 samples); African-Continental (AC, n = 66); Caucasian-American (CA, n = 96); East-Asian (EA, n = 150); Latin-American (LA, n = 114); South-Asian (SA, n = 96). Rarefaction analysis represented by phylogenetic distance. The solid and dashed lines indicate samples collected before (T1) and after (T2) a special soap wash was used, respectively. Only a significant difference between time-points was found for the SA group. Panel B. Intra- and inter-group beta-diversity over time. Mean (±SD) pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances are shown. The ethnic groups are colored as described in Fig 1. Significance was determined by one-way ANOVA with the Tukey method for correction for multiple comparisons (*<0.05; **<0.01; ***<0.001; ****<0.0001).

Mentions: As determined by analysis of phylogenetic distances, we did not find any significant difference in alpha diversity within each of the ethnic groups at each skin site, comparing the two time points, with one exception (Fig 2, Panel A); a significant difference in number of observed species was found between the arm samples before (time 1) and after stopping the use of shampoos and deodorants (time 2) in the South Asian group (p = 0.03). In contrast, alpha diversity expressed as the number of observed species, Chao index, or phylogenetic distance amongst the South Asian group was similar at the three skin sites. For the other 5 ethnic groups studied, using all of the different metrics to assess alpha diversity, the three skin sites at time 1 all significantly differed from each other (data not shown).


Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome.

Perez Perez GI, Gao Z, Jourdain R, Ramirez J, Gany F, Clavaud C, Demaude J, Breton L, Blaser MJ - PLoS ONE (2016)

Comparison of diversity of the cutaneous microbiota over time, by ethnic group.Panel A. Rarefaction analysis of cutaneous microbiota in relation to sampling time in samples from arms (Brown), axilla (Black) and scalp (Yellow), African-American (AA, n = 108 samples); African-Continental (AC, n = 66); Caucasian-American (CA, n = 96); East-Asian (EA, n = 150); Latin-American (LA, n = 114); South-Asian (SA, n = 96). Rarefaction analysis represented by phylogenetic distance. The solid and dashed lines indicate samples collected before (T1) and after (T2) a special soap wash was used, respectively. Only a significant difference between time-points was found for the SA group. Panel B. Intra- and inter-group beta-diversity over time. Mean (±SD) pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances are shown. The ethnic groups are colored as described in Fig 1. Significance was determined by one-way ANOVA with the Tukey method for correction for multiple comparisons (*<0.05; **<0.01; ***<0.001; ****<0.0001).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835103&req=5

pone.0151990.g002: Comparison of diversity of the cutaneous microbiota over time, by ethnic group.Panel A. Rarefaction analysis of cutaneous microbiota in relation to sampling time in samples from arms (Brown), axilla (Black) and scalp (Yellow), African-American (AA, n = 108 samples); African-Continental (AC, n = 66); Caucasian-American (CA, n = 96); East-Asian (EA, n = 150); Latin-American (LA, n = 114); South-Asian (SA, n = 96). Rarefaction analysis represented by phylogenetic distance. The solid and dashed lines indicate samples collected before (T1) and after (T2) a special soap wash was used, respectively. Only a significant difference between time-points was found for the SA group. Panel B. Intra- and inter-group beta-diversity over time. Mean (±SD) pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances are shown. The ethnic groups are colored as described in Fig 1. Significance was determined by one-way ANOVA with the Tukey method for correction for multiple comparisons (*<0.05; **<0.01; ***<0.001; ****<0.0001).
Mentions: As determined by analysis of phylogenetic distances, we did not find any significant difference in alpha diversity within each of the ethnic groups at each skin site, comparing the two time points, with one exception (Fig 2, Panel A); a significant difference in number of observed species was found between the arm samples before (time 1) and after stopping the use of shampoos and deodorants (time 2) in the South Asian group (p = 0.03). In contrast, alpha diversity expressed as the number of observed species, Chao index, or phylogenetic distance amongst the South Asian group was similar at the three skin sites. For the other 5 ethnic groups studied, using all of the different metrics to assess alpha diversity, the three skin sites at time 1 all significantly differed from each other (data not shown).

Bottom Line: Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups.We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants.We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp) in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City.

Methods: Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis.

Results: Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites.

Conclusions: We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus