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Safety of Eplerenone for Kidney-Transplant Recipients with Impaired Renal Function and Receiving Cyclosporine A.

Bertocchio JP, Barbe C, Lavaud S, Toupance O, Nazeyrollas P, Jaisser F, Rieu P - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Basal serum potassium and bicarbonate were independently associated with a higher risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L) under treatment (OR 6.5, p = 0.003 and 0.7, p = 0.007, respectively).When renal function is impaired and if basal kalemia is >4.35 mmol/L, then clinicians should properly balance risk and benefit of eplerenone use and offer dietary advice.An adequately powered prospective randomized study is now needed to test its efficiency (and safety) in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, Reims University Hospital, Avenue Cognacq Jay, 51092 Reims CEDEX, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal studies have highlighted the role of vascular mineralocorticoid receptor during Cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists could improve kidney survival but are not commonly used during renal impairment and in association with several immunosuppressive drugs due to a supposed higher risk of adverse events. We tested the tolerance of eplerenone according to its expected adverse events: hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, acute kidney failure, or any other adverse event.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, prospective, open-label study in 31 kidney-transplant recipients with impaired renal function (30 and 50 mL/min/1.73 m2) and receiving cyclosporine A. All patients received eplerenone 25 mg/d for 8 weeks. Serum potassium, renal function and expected adverse events were closely monitored.

Results: Eight patients experienced mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L), one moderate hyperkalemia (>5.5 mmol/L) and had to receive potassium-exchange resin. No severe hyperkalemia (>6 mmol/L) occurred. One acute kidney failure was observed, secondary to diarrhea. Basal serum potassium and bicarbonate were independently associated with a higher risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L) under treatment (OR 6.5, p = 0.003 and 0.7, p = 0.007, respectively). A cut-off value of 4.35 mmol/L for basal serum potassium was the best factor to predict the risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L).

Conclusions: Until eGFR falls to 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, eplerenone could be safely given to kidney-transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine A, if kalemia is closely monitored. When renal function is impaired and if basal kalemia is >4.35 mmol/L, then clinicians should properly balance risk and benefit of eplerenone use and offer dietary advice. An adequately powered prospective randomized study is now needed to test its efficiency (and safety) in this population.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01834768.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Risk factors for developing mild hyperkalemia under treatment.Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for (A) serum potassium and (B) serum bicarbonate at baseline.
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pone.0153635.g003: Risk factors for developing mild hyperkalemia under treatment.Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for (A) serum potassium and (B) serum bicarbonate at baseline.

Mentions: ROC analyses were performed to test if a cut-off value for serum potassium and/or bicarbonate at baseline could distinguish which patients had a higher risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L) under eplerenone treatment. Only serum potassium at baseline (Fig 3A) showed this ability (AUC = 0.846 [0.681–1.0]), whereas serum bicarbonate at baseline (Fig 3B) did not (AUC = 0.222 [0.048–0.397]). Serum potassium of >4.35 mmol/L at baseline was a marker for a higher risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L) during the treatment period, with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 77%.


Safety of Eplerenone for Kidney-Transplant Recipients with Impaired Renal Function and Receiving Cyclosporine A.

Bertocchio JP, Barbe C, Lavaud S, Toupance O, Nazeyrollas P, Jaisser F, Rieu P - PLoS ONE (2016)

Risk factors for developing mild hyperkalemia under treatment.Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for (A) serum potassium and (B) serum bicarbonate at baseline.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835088&req=5

pone.0153635.g003: Risk factors for developing mild hyperkalemia under treatment.Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for (A) serum potassium and (B) serum bicarbonate at baseline.
Mentions: ROC analyses were performed to test if a cut-off value for serum potassium and/or bicarbonate at baseline could distinguish which patients had a higher risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L) under eplerenone treatment. Only serum potassium at baseline (Fig 3A) showed this ability (AUC = 0.846 [0.681–1.0]), whereas serum bicarbonate at baseline (Fig 3B) did not (AUC = 0.222 [0.048–0.397]). Serum potassium of >4.35 mmol/L at baseline was a marker for a higher risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L) during the treatment period, with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 77%.

Bottom Line: Basal serum potassium and bicarbonate were independently associated with a higher risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L) under treatment (OR 6.5, p = 0.003 and 0.7, p = 0.007, respectively).When renal function is impaired and if basal kalemia is >4.35 mmol/L, then clinicians should properly balance risk and benefit of eplerenone use and offer dietary advice.An adequately powered prospective randomized study is now needed to test its efficiency (and safety) in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, Reims University Hospital, Avenue Cognacq Jay, 51092 Reims CEDEX, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal studies have highlighted the role of vascular mineralocorticoid receptor during Cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists could improve kidney survival but are not commonly used during renal impairment and in association with several immunosuppressive drugs due to a supposed higher risk of adverse events. We tested the tolerance of eplerenone according to its expected adverse events: hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, acute kidney failure, or any other adverse event.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, prospective, open-label study in 31 kidney-transplant recipients with impaired renal function (30 and 50 mL/min/1.73 m2) and receiving cyclosporine A. All patients received eplerenone 25 mg/d for 8 weeks. Serum potassium, renal function and expected adverse events were closely monitored.

Results: Eight patients experienced mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L), one moderate hyperkalemia (>5.5 mmol/L) and had to receive potassium-exchange resin. No severe hyperkalemia (>6 mmol/L) occurred. One acute kidney failure was observed, secondary to diarrhea. Basal serum potassium and bicarbonate were independently associated with a higher risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L) under treatment (OR 6.5, p = 0.003 and 0.7, p = 0.007, respectively). A cut-off value of 4.35 mmol/L for basal serum potassium was the best factor to predict the risk of developing mild hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/L).

Conclusions: Until eGFR falls to 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, eplerenone could be safely given to kidney-transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine A, if kalemia is closely monitored. When renal function is impaired and if basal kalemia is >4.35 mmol/L, then clinicians should properly balance risk and benefit of eplerenone use and offer dietary advice. An adequately powered prospective randomized study is now needed to test its efficiency (and safety) in this population.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01834768.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus