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Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

Amorim JL, Simas DL, Pinheiro MM, Moreno DS, Alviano CS, da Silva AJ, Fernandes PD - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene.Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral.Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Laboratório de Farmacologia da Dor e da Inflamação, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of limonene on formalin-induced licking and SAP models.Animals were pretreated with various doses of limonene (5.5, 16.5 or 55 mg/kg) or vehicle 1 h prior to formalin (1%) or carrageenan (1%) injection. The results are presented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 6 per group). Statistical significance was calculated by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. *P < 0.05 when comparing essential oils-treated animals with carrageenan injected in the SAP with the group that received carrageenan in the SAP.
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pone.0153643.g007: Effect of limonene on formalin-induced licking and SAP models.Animals were pretreated with various doses of limonene (5.5, 16.5 or 55 mg/kg) or vehicle 1 h prior to formalin (1%) or carrageenan (1%) injection. The results are presented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 6 per group). Statistical significance was calculated by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. *P < 0.05 when comparing essential oils-treated animals with carrageenan injected in the SAP with the group that received carrageenan in the SAP.

Mentions: After finding high amounts of limonene in the EOs (53.9% in C. limon, 65.7% in C. limonia and 31.1% in C. aurantifolia), we decided to evaluate pure limonene. The doses used were similar to the amount found in C. aurantifolia EO. Fig 7 show that pure limonene significantly reduced the formalin-induced licking behavior only in high doses (55 mg/kg). In the SAP model, 16.5 and 55 mg/kg doses reduced cell migration to and IFN-γ production in the pouch, whereas protein extravasation, NO and IL-1β production were reduced only with a 55 mg/kg dose. TNF-α levels were inhibited by all three doses (5.5, 16.5 and 55 mg/kg). None of the doses tested influenced the total leukocyte counts in blood or bone marrow (data not shown).


Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

Amorim JL, Simas DL, Pinheiro MM, Moreno DS, Alviano CS, da Silva AJ, Fernandes PD - PLoS ONE (2016)

Effect of limonene on formalin-induced licking and SAP models.Animals were pretreated with various doses of limonene (5.5, 16.5 or 55 mg/kg) or vehicle 1 h prior to formalin (1%) or carrageenan (1%) injection. The results are presented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 6 per group). Statistical significance was calculated by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. *P < 0.05 when comparing essential oils-treated animals with carrageenan injected in the SAP with the group that received carrageenan in the SAP.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835072&req=5

pone.0153643.g007: Effect of limonene on formalin-induced licking and SAP models.Animals were pretreated with various doses of limonene (5.5, 16.5 or 55 mg/kg) or vehicle 1 h prior to formalin (1%) or carrageenan (1%) injection. The results are presented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 6 per group). Statistical significance was calculated by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. *P < 0.05 when comparing essential oils-treated animals with carrageenan injected in the SAP with the group that received carrageenan in the SAP.
Mentions: After finding high amounts of limonene in the EOs (53.9% in C. limon, 65.7% in C. limonia and 31.1% in C. aurantifolia), we decided to evaluate pure limonene. The doses used were similar to the amount found in C. aurantifolia EO. Fig 7 show that pure limonene significantly reduced the formalin-induced licking behavior only in high doses (55 mg/kg). In the SAP model, 16.5 and 55 mg/kg doses reduced cell migration to and IFN-γ production in the pouch, whereas protein extravasation, NO and IL-1β production were reduced only with a 55 mg/kg dose. TNF-α levels were inhibited by all three doses (5.5, 16.5 and 55 mg/kg). None of the doses tested influenced the total leukocyte counts in blood or bone marrow (data not shown).

Bottom Line: These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene.Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral.Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Laboratório de Farmacologia da Dor e da Inflamação, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus