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Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

Amorim JL, Simas DL, Pinheiro MM, Moreno DS, Alviano CS, da Silva AJ, Fernandes PD - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene.Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral.Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Laboratório de Farmacologia da Dor e da Inflamação, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of C. limon, C. limonia and C. aurantifolia essential oils on leukocyte migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP).Animals were pretreated with different doses of the essential oils, dexamethasone (Dexa, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 1 h prior to carrageenan (1%) injection into the SAP. The results are presented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 10 per group) of cells (x 106/mL) in the SAP. Statistical significance was calculated by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. #P < 0.05 when comparing vehicle treated group that received carrageenan in the SAP with vehicle-treated animals that received PBS in SAP; *P < 0.05 when comparing essential oils-treated animals with that received carrageenan in the SAP with the group that only received carrageenan in the SAP.
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pone.0153643.g003: Effects of C. limon, C. limonia and C. aurantifolia essential oils on leukocyte migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP).Animals were pretreated with different doses of the essential oils, dexamethasone (Dexa, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 1 h prior to carrageenan (1%) injection into the SAP. The results are presented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 10 per group) of cells (x 106/mL) in the SAP. Statistical significance was calculated by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. #P < 0.05 when comparing vehicle treated group that received carrageenan in the SAP with vehicle-treated animals that received PBS in SAP; *P < 0.05 when comparing essential oils-treated animals with that received carrageenan in the SAP with the group that only received carrageenan in the SAP.

Mentions: Next, we analyzed the capacity of the EOs to reduce cell migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP) after the injection of carrageenan. The results obtained in this model show that C. limon and C. aurantifolia significantly reduced cell migration after pre-treatment of animals with 30 or 100 mg/kg, while C. limonia demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect with all three doses tested (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). The effects observed with 30 or 100 mg/kg doses were similar to those obtained with the positive group, dexamethasone (Dexa, 1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) (Fig 3). The differential cell count of exudates demonstrated that more than 90% of leukocytes that migrate to the SAP was composed by polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Reduction in cells number inhibited both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes without distinction between then (data not shown).


Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

Amorim JL, Simas DL, Pinheiro MM, Moreno DS, Alviano CS, da Silva AJ, Fernandes PD - PLoS ONE (2016)

Effects of C. limon, C. limonia and C. aurantifolia essential oils on leukocyte migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP).Animals were pretreated with different doses of the essential oils, dexamethasone (Dexa, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 1 h prior to carrageenan (1%) injection into the SAP. The results are presented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 10 per group) of cells (x 106/mL) in the SAP. Statistical significance was calculated by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. #P < 0.05 when comparing vehicle treated group that received carrageenan in the SAP with vehicle-treated animals that received PBS in SAP; *P < 0.05 when comparing essential oils-treated animals with that received carrageenan in the SAP with the group that only received carrageenan in the SAP.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835072&req=5

pone.0153643.g003: Effects of C. limon, C. limonia and C. aurantifolia essential oils on leukocyte migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP).Animals were pretreated with different doses of the essential oils, dexamethasone (Dexa, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 1 h prior to carrageenan (1%) injection into the SAP. The results are presented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 10 per group) of cells (x 106/mL) in the SAP. Statistical significance was calculated by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. #P < 0.05 when comparing vehicle treated group that received carrageenan in the SAP with vehicle-treated animals that received PBS in SAP; *P < 0.05 when comparing essential oils-treated animals with that received carrageenan in the SAP with the group that only received carrageenan in the SAP.
Mentions: Next, we analyzed the capacity of the EOs to reduce cell migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP) after the injection of carrageenan. The results obtained in this model show that C. limon and C. aurantifolia significantly reduced cell migration after pre-treatment of animals with 30 or 100 mg/kg, while C. limonia demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect with all three doses tested (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). The effects observed with 30 or 100 mg/kg doses were similar to those obtained with the positive group, dexamethasone (Dexa, 1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) (Fig 3). The differential cell count of exudates demonstrated that more than 90% of leukocytes that migrate to the SAP was composed by polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Reduction in cells number inhibited both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes without distinction between then (data not shown).

Bottom Line: These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene.Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral.Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Laboratório de Farmacologia da Dor e da Inflamação, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus