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Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies.

Jee YH, Lebenthal Y, Chaemsaithong P, Yan G, Peran I, Wellstein A, Romero R, Baron J - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood.We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Growth and Development, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated.

Method and findings: To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.

Conclusion: The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Amniotic fluid PTN concentrations.Panel A: AF PTN concentrations (n = 170) did not vary significantly with gestational age (Panel A). Panel B: AF PTN concentrations were similar between the absence and presence of labor in healthy term pregnancies, and also similar between pregnancies complicated by PPROM and by premature labor. MDK was lower in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in term pregnancies without infection (P = 0.01). Data are presented as mean ± SE. Panel A: Black triangle (mid-gestation), x (preterm labor), blue circle (premature preterm rupture of membranes), black diamond (term not in labor), green square (term in labor), orange triangle (term chorioamnionitis).
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pone.0153325.g005: Amniotic fluid PTN concentrations.Panel A: AF PTN concentrations (n = 170) did not vary significantly with gestational age (Panel A). Panel B: AF PTN concentrations were similar between the absence and presence of labor in healthy term pregnancies, and also similar between pregnancies complicated by PPROM and by premature labor. MDK was lower in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in term pregnancies without infection (P = 0.01). Data are presented as mean ± SE. Panel A: Black triangle (mid-gestation), x (preterm labor), blue circle (premature preterm rupture of membranes), black diamond (term not in labor), green square (term in labor), orange triangle (term chorioamnionitis).

Mentions: In healthy term pregnancies without labor, the average PTN concentration in AF was 6.3 ± 1.0 ng/ml. In contrast to AF MDK levels, AF PTN levels did not decline significantly with gestational age (P = 0.085, Fig 5A). AF PTN concentrations were similar in healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor and during labor (6.30 ± 1.00 ng/ml vs. 6.76 ± 1.00 ng/ml, P = 0.534). Similar to MDK, AF PTN concentrations in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis were lower than in healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor (3.47 ± 0.79 ng/ml vs. 6.30 ± 1.00 ng/ml, P = 0.01). AF MDK concentrations were similar between preterm pregnancies during labor and PPROM (3.72 ± 0.77 ng/ml vs. 5.36 ± 1.39, P = 0.22).


Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies.

Jee YH, Lebenthal Y, Chaemsaithong P, Yan G, Peran I, Wellstein A, Romero R, Baron J - PLoS ONE (2016)

Amniotic fluid PTN concentrations.Panel A: AF PTN concentrations (n = 170) did not vary significantly with gestational age (Panel A). Panel B: AF PTN concentrations were similar between the absence and presence of labor in healthy term pregnancies, and also similar between pregnancies complicated by PPROM and by premature labor. MDK was lower in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in term pregnancies without infection (P = 0.01). Data are presented as mean ± SE. Panel A: Black triangle (mid-gestation), x (preterm labor), blue circle (premature preterm rupture of membranes), black diamond (term not in labor), green square (term in labor), orange triangle (term chorioamnionitis).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835047&req=5

pone.0153325.g005: Amniotic fluid PTN concentrations.Panel A: AF PTN concentrations (n = 170) did not vary significantly with gestational age (Panel A). Panel B: AF PTN concentrations were similar between the absence and presence of labor in healthy term pregnancies, and also similar between pregnancies complicated by PPROM and by premature labor. MDK was lower in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in term pregnancies without infection (P = 0.01). Data are presented as mean ± SE. Panel A: Black triangle (mid-gestation), x (preterm labor), blue circle (premature preterm rupture of membranes), black diamond (term not in labor), green square (term in labor), orange triangle (term chorioamnionitis).
Mentions: In healthy term pregnancies without labor, the average PTN concentration in AF was 6.3 ± 1.0 ng/ml. In contrast to AF MDK levels, AF PTN levels did not decline significantly with gestational age (P = 0.085, Fig 5A). AF PTN concentrations were similar in healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor and during labor (6.30 ± 1.00 ng/ml vs. 6.76 ± 1.00 ng/ml, P = 0.534). Similar to MDK, AF PTN concentrations in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis were lower than in healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor (3.47 ± 0.79 ng/ml vs. 6.30 ± 1.00 ng/ml, P = 0.01). AF MDK concentrations were similar between preterm pregnancies during labor and PPROM (3.72 ± 0.77 ng/ml vs. 5.36 ± 1.39, P = 0.22).

Bottom Line: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood.We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Growth and Development, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated.

Method and findings: To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.

Conclusion: The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus