Limits...
Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies.

Jee YH, Lebenthal Y, Chaemsaithong P, Yan G, Peran I, Wellstein A, Romero R, Baron J - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood.We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Growth and Development, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated.

Method and findings: To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.

Conclusion: The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Amniotic fluid MDK concentrations.Panel A: AF MDK concentrations (n = 202) declined with gestational age. Panel B: AF MDK concentrations were not significantly different between healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor and during labor or between pregnancies complicated by PPROM and premature labor. MDK was lower in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in term pregnancies without infection (P = 0.015). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Panel A: Black triangle (mid-gestation), x (preterm labor), blue circle (premature preterm rupture of membranes), black diamond (term not in labor), green square (term in labor), orange triangle (term chorioamnionitis).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835047&req=5

pone.0153325.g004: Amniotic fluid MDK concentrations.Panel A: AF MDK concentrations (n = 202) declined with gestational age. Panel B: AF MDK concentrations were not significantly different between healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor and during labor or between pregnancies complicated by PPROM and premature labor. MDK was lower in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in term pregnancies without infection (P = 0.015). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Panel A: Black triangle (mid-gestation), x (preterm labor), blue circle (premature preterm rupture of membranes), black diamond (term not in labor), green square (term in labor), orange triangle (term chorioamnionitis).

Mentions: In general, MDK concentrations in AF were far higher than in maternal plasma. In healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor, the average AF MDK concentration was 3.61 ± 1.51 ng/ml while the maternal plasma concentration was 0.18 ± 0.02 ng/ml. MDK concentrations declined with gestational age (P < 0.001, Fig 4A). In healthy term pregnancies, AF MDK concentrations were similar between the absence of labor and during labor (3.61 ± 1.51 ng/ml vs. 1.83 ± 0.26 ng/ml, P = 0.6, Fig 4B). Interestingly, AF MDK concentrations in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis were lower than in healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor (1.12 ± 0.24 ng/ml vs. 3.61 ± 1.51, P = 0.015, Fig 4B). AF MDK concentrations were slightly lower in preterm pregnancies during labor than in PPROM (1.61 ± 0.35 ng/ml vs. 1.79 ± 0.28, P = 0.046, Fig 4B).


Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies.

Jee YH, Lebenthal Y, Chaemsaithong P, Yan G, Peran I, Wellstein A, Romero R, Baron J - PLoS ONE (2016)

Amniotic fluid MDK concentrations.Panel A: AF MDK concentrations (n = 202) declined with gestational age. Panel B: AF MDK concentrations were not significantly different between healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor and during labor or between pregnancies complicated by PPROM and premature labor. MDK was lower in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in term pregnancies without infection (P = 0.015). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Panel A: Black triangle (mid-gestation), x (preterm labor), blue circle (premature preterm rupture of membranes), black diamond (term not in labor), green square (term in labor), orange triangle (term chorioamnionitis).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835047&req=5

pone.0153325.g004: Amniotic fluid MDK concentrations.Panel A: AF MDK concentrations (n = 202) declined with gestational age. Panel B: AF MDK concentrations were not significantly different between healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor and during labor or between pregnancies complicated by PPROM and premature labor. MDK was lower in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in term pregnancies without infection (P = 0.015). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Panel A: Black triangle (mid-gestation), x (preterm labor), blue circle (premature preterm rupture of membranes), black diamond (term not in labor), green square (term in labor), orange triangle (term chorioamnionitis).
Mentions: In general, MDK concentrations in AF were far higher than in maternal plasma. In healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor, the average AF MDK concentration was 3.61 ± 1.51 ng/ml while the maternal plasma concentration was 0.18 ± 0.02 ng/ml. MDK concentrations declined with gestational age (P < 0.001, Fig 4A). In healthy term pregnancies, AF MDK concentrations were similar between the absence of labor and during labor (3.61 ± 1.51 ng/ml vs. 1.83 ± 0.26 ng/ml, P = 0.6, Fig 4B). Interestingly, AF MDK concentrations in term pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis were lower than in healthy term pregnancies in the absence of labor (1.12 ± 0.24 ng/ml vs. 3.61 ± 1.51, P = 0.015, Fig 4B). AF MDK concentrations were slightly lower in preterm pregnancies during labor than in PPROM (1.61 ± 0.35 ng/ml vs. 1.79 ± 0.28, P = 0.046, Fig 4B).

Bottom Line: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood.We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Growth and Development, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated.

Method and findings: To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.

Conclusion: The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus