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Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies.

Jee YH, Lebenthal Y, Chaemsaithong P, Yan G, Peran I, Wellstein A, Romero R, Baron J - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood.We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Growth and Development, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated.

Method and findings: To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.

Conclusion: The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Heparin-stripping of MDK and PTN from amniotic fluid.Assay specificity was assessed by removing both MDK and PTN from AF with heparin-Sepharose beads. ELISA signals for both MDK (Panel A) and PTN (Panel B) were abolished after treatment.
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pone.0153325.g002: Heparin-stripping of MDK and PTN from amniotic fluid.Assay specificity was assessed by removing both MDK and PTN from AF with heparin-Sepharose beads. ELISA signals for both MDK (Panel A) and PTN (Panel B) were abolished after treatment.

Mentions: To assess the specificity of the ELISAs, we took advantage of the fact that both MDK and PTN bind avidly to heparin. Both MDK and PTN were removed from AF using Heparin-Sepharose beads and this procedure essentially eliminated all ELISA signals for both MDK and PTN (Fig 2A and 2B). To further validate the MDK and PTN assays, AF was diluted serially in assay buffer prior to assay. Both the MDK and PTN assays showed good parallelism between the standard curve and serially diluted AF washout samples (S2A & S2B Fig). A 1:50 dilution of AF was then selected to perform all the MDK and PTN assays.


Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies.

Jee YH, Lebenthal Y, Chaemsaithong P, Yan G, Peran I, Wellstein A, Romero R, Baron J - PLoS ONE (2016)

Heparin-stripping of MDK and PTN from amniotic fluid.Assay specificity was assessed by removing both MDK and PTN from AF with heparin-Sepharose beads. ELISA signals for both MDK (Panel A) and PTN (Panel B) were abolished after treatment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835047&req=5

pone.0153325.g002: Heparin-stripping of MDK and PTN from amniotic fluid.Assay specificity was assessed by removing both MDK and PTN from AF with heparin-Sepharose beads. ELISA signals for both MDK (Panel A) and PTN (Panel B) were abolished after treatment.
Mentions: To assess the specificity of the ELISAs, we took advantage of the fact that both MDK and PTN bind avidly to heparin. Both MDK and PTN were removed from AF using Heparin-Sepharose beads and this procedure essentially eliminated all ELISA signals for both MDK and PTN (Fig 2A and 2B). To further validate the MDK and PTN assays, AF was diluted serially in assay buffer prior to assay. Both the MDK and PTN assays showed good parallelism between the standard curve and serially diluted AF washout samples (S2A & S2B Fig). A 1:50 dilution of AF was then selected to perform all the MDK and PTN assays.

Bottom Line: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood.We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Growth and Development, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated.

Method and findings: To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.

Conclusion: The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus