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Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies.

Jee YH, Lebenthal Y, Chaemsaithong P, Yan G, Peran I, Wellstein A, Romero R, Baron J - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood.We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Growth and Development, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated.

Method and findings: To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.

Conclusion: The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flowchart of samples evaluated for plasma midkine (1A), amniotic fluid midkine (1B), and amniotic fluid pleiotrophin (1C).PPROM, preterm premature rupture of membranes; n, number of samples; gestational age represents the median (range) age at which sample was obtained.
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pone.0153325.g001: Flowchart of samples evaluated for plasma midkine (1A), amniotic fluid midkine (1B), and amniotic fluid pleiotrophin (1C).PPROM, preterm premature rupture of membranes; n, number of samples; gestational age represents the median (range) age at which sample was obtained.

Mentions: Specimens were obtained from the Biologic Tissue Bank of the Perinatology Research Branch (PRB) of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT00340249). Plasma samples had been obtained in 1999–2001, and amniotic fluid 1990–2005. Clinical data were extracted from the associated Perinatal Database. All subjects provided written informed consent. The Institutional Review Board of the NICHD approved the use of clinical data and biological specimens. MDK was measured in maternal plasma from singleton complicated and healthy pregnancies (n = 114) and non-pregnant, healthy, age-matched controls (n = 16, Fig 1A). MDK (n = 202) and PTN (n = 170) were measured in AF from singleton pregnancies grouped according to outcome of pregnancy (Fig 1B and 1C). PTN was not measured in all samples due to insufficient sample volume.


Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies.

Jee YH, Lebenthal Y, Chaemsaithong P, Yan G, Peran I, Wellstein A, Romero R, Baron J - PLoS ONE (2016)

Flowchart of samples evaluated for plasma midkine (1A), amniotic fluid midkine (1B), and amniotic fluid pleiotrophin (1C).PPROM, preterm premature rupture of membranes; n, number of samples; gestational age represents the median (range) age at which sample was obtained.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835047&req=5

pone.0153325.g001: Flowchart of samples evaluated for plasma midkine (1A), amniotic fluid midkine (1B), and amniotic fluid pleiotrophin (1C).PPROM, preterm premature rupture of membranes; n, number of samples; gestational age represents the median (range) age at which sample was obtained.
Mentions: Specimens were obtained from the Biologic Tissue Bank of the Perinatology Research Branch (PRB) of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT00340249). Plasma samples had been obtained in 1999–2001, and amniotic fluid 1990–2005. Clinical data were extracted from the associated Perinatal Database. All subjects provided written informed consent. The Institutional Review Board of the NICHD approved the use of clinical data and biological specimens. MDK was measured in maternal plasma from singleton complicated and healthy pregnancies (n = 114) and non-pregnant, healthy, age-matched controls (n = 16, Fig 1A). MDK (n = 202) and PTN (n = 170) were measured in AF from singleton pregnancies grouped according to outcome of pregnancy (Fig 1B and 1C). PTN was not measured in all samples due to insufficient sample volume.

Bottom Line: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood.We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Growth and Development, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated.

Method and findings: To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF.

Conclusion: The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus