Limits...
Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene moderates the protective effects of a family-based prevention program on telomere length.

Smearman EL, Yu T, Brody GH - Brain Behav (2016)

Bottom Line: Parent-child relationships with high conflict and low warmth and support are associated with later adverse behavioral and physiological child outcomes.Subsequent analyses suggest that these findings may be mediated through chronic anger, whereby GG individuals exposed to nonsupportive parenting and randomized to the control condition had a greater increase in chronic anger by study follow-up, compared to those in the intervention, and this change associated with greater telomere shortening.These findings highlight the importance of individual differences and potential role of genetic status in moderating the relationship between environmental contexts and biological outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioral Sciences and Health EducationRollins School of Public HealthEmory University1518 Clifton Road NortheastAtlantaGeorgia30322; Center for Translational and Social NeuroscienceEmory UniversityAtlantaGeorgia30322.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Parent-child relationships with high conflict and low warmth and support are associated with later adverse behavioral and physiological child outcomes. These outcomes include shorter telomere lengths, the repetitive sequences at the ends of chromosomes that have been utilized as a biomarker for chronic stress. Our research group furthered this by exploring telomere length outcomes following a family-based prevention program and identified reduced telomere shortening 5 years post intervention among those originally exposed to nonsupportive parenting and randomized to the intervention condition. However, not all individuals respond equally, and a growing literature suggests genetic sensitivity to one's environment, with variations in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) potentially influencing this sensitivity.

Methods: We utilized data from African American youths (mean age 17) randomized to intervention (n = 100) or control condition (n = 91) with baseline assessments of genetic status and nonsupportive parenting, and 5-year follow-up assessments of telomere length.

Results: We found a significant three-way interaction between nonsupportive parenting, intervention condition, and OXTR rs53576 genotype. OXTR GG individuals, who are suggested to be more sensitive to their social environment, exhibited significantly more variability, evidencing the shortest telomeres when exposed to nonsupportive parenting and randomized to the control condition, and similar telomere lengths to non at-risk groups when randomized to the intervention. In contrast, those with the A allele showed no statistical difference in telomere lengths across parental and intervention conditions. Subsequent analyses suggest that these findings may be mediated through chronic anger, whereby GG individuals exposed to nonsupportive parenting and randomized to the control condition had a greater increase in chronic anger by study follow-up, compared to those in the intervention, and this change associated with greater telomere shortening.

Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of individual differences and potential role of genetic status in moderating the relationship between environmental contexts and biological outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A mediational model of intervention status, change in chronic anger, and later telomere length. A mediational model of intervention status, change in anger from baseline to follow‐up, and telomere length at age 22 with socioeconomic‐related risk and gender controlled. Unstandardized coefficients are presented. Analyses were performed in the sample of participants with high nonsupportive parenting exposure at baseline and with the GG genotype, as they were most sensitive to the environments (N = 50). Indirect effect = 0.128, 95% CI [0.001, 0.470].
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834932&req=5

brb3423-fig-0002: A mediational model of intervention status, change in chronic anger, and later telomere length. A mediational model of intervention status, change in anger from baseline to follow‐up, and telomere length at age 22 with socioeconomic‐related risk and gender controlled. Unstandardized coefficients are presented. Analyses were performed in the sample of participants with high nonsupportive parenting exposure at baseline and with the GG genotype, as they were most sensitive to the environments (N = 50). Indirect effect = 0.128, 95% CI [0.001, 0.470].

Mentions: The hypothesis was tested using structural equation modeling with latent difference scores that reflect the degree to which anger changed from baseline to follow‐up (Fig. 2). First, regression coefficients were calculated for the association between intervention status and changes in anger (Path A) and the association between changes in anger and telomere length (Path B). Then, the indirect effect was quantified as the product of the two regression coefficients (A × B). In addition, nonparametric bootstrapping, which has been found to be sensitive in mediational analyses (Preacher and Hayes 2004), was used to obtain the bias‐corrected and accelerated confidence intervals (BCA) of the indirect effect for significance testing. The indirect, mediating effect was calculated 1000 times using random sampling with replacement to build a sampling distribution. Similar to the parent paper, gender, and family SES were controlled in the analysis. Chi‐square, t‐tests, and regression analyses were performed using SPSS 22 (RRID:rid_000042); the SEM model testing the mediation hypothesis was performed using Mplus 7.3.


Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene moderates the protective effects of a family-based prevention program on telomere length.

Smearman EL, Yu T, Brody GH - Brain Behav (2016)

A mediational model of intervention status, change in chronic anger, and later telomere length. A mediational model of intervention status, change in anger from baseline to follow‐up, and telomere length at age 22 with socioeconomic‐related risk and gender controlled. Unstandardized coefficients are presented. Analyses were performed in the sample of participants with high nonsupportive parenting exposure at baseline and with the GG genotype, as they were most sensitive to the environments (N = 50). Indirect effect = 0.128, 95% CI [0.001, 0.470].
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834932&req=5

brb3423-fig-0002: A mediational model of intervention status, change in chronic anger, and later telomere length. A mediational model of intervention status, change in anger from baseline to follow‐up, and telomere length at age 22 with socioeconomic‐related risk and gender controlled. Unstandardized coefficients are presented. Analyses were performed in the sample of participants with high nonsupportive parenting exposure at baseline and with the GG genotype, as they were most sensitive to the environments (N = 50). Indirect effect = 0.128, 95% CI [0.001, 0.470].
Mentions: The hypothesis was tested using structural equation modeling with latent difference scores that reflect the degree to which anger changed from baseline to follow‐up (Fig. 2). First, regression coefficients were calculated for the association between intervention status and changes in anger (Path A) and the association between changes in anger and telomere length (Path B). Then, the indirect effect was quantified as the product of the two regression coefficients (A × B). In addition, nonparametric bootstrapping, which has been found to be sensitive in mediational analyses (Preacher and Hayes 2004), was used to obtain the bias‐corrected and accelerated confidence intervals (BCA) of the indirect effect for significance testing. The indirect, mediating effect was calculated 1000 times using random sampling with replacement to build a sampling distribution. Similar to the parent paper, gender, and family SES were controlled in the analysis. Chi‐square, t‐tests, and regression analyses were performed using SPSS 22 (RRID:rid_000042); the SEM model testing the mediation hypothesis was performed using Mplus 7.3.

Bottom Line: Parent-child relationships with high conflict and low warmth and support are associated with later adverse behavioral and physiological child outcomes.Subsequent analyses suggest that these findings may be mediated through chronic anger, whereby GG individuals exposed to nonsupportive parenting and randomized to the control condition had a greater increase in chronic anger by study follow-up, compared to those in the intervention, and this change associated with greater telomere shortening.These findings highlight the importance of individual differences and potential role of genetic status in moderating the relationship between environmental contexts and biological outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioral Sciences and Health EducationRollins School of Public HealthEmory University1518 Clifton Road NortheastAtlantaGeorgia30322; Center for Translational and Social NeuroscienceEmory UniversityAtlantaGeorgia30322.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Parent-child relationships with high conflict and low warmth and support are associated with later adverse behavioral and physiological child outcomes. These outcomes include shorter telomere lengths, the repetitive sequences at the ends of chromosomes that have been utilized as a biomarker for chronic stress. Our research group furthered this by exploring telomere length outcomes following a family-based prevention program and identified reduced telomere shortening 5 years post intervention among those originally exposed to nonsupportive parenting and randomized to the intervention condition. However, not all individuals respond equally, and a growing literature suggests genetic sensitivity to one's environment, with variations in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) potentially influencing this sensitivity.

Methods: We utilized data from African American youths (mean age 17) randomized to intervention (n = 100) or control condition (n = 91) with baseline assessments of genetic status and nonsupportive parenting, and 5-year follow-up assessments of telomere length.

Results: We found a significant three-way interaction between nonsupportive parenting, intervention condition, and OXTR rs53576 genotype. OXTR GG individuals, who are suggested to be more sensitive to their social environment, exhibited significantly more variability, evidencing the shortest telomeres when exposed to nonsupportive parenting and randomized to the control condition, and similar telomere lengths to non at-risk groups when randomized to the intervention. In contrast, those with the A allele showed no statistical difference in telomere lengths across parental and intervention conditions. Subsequent analyses suggest that these findings may be mediated through chronic anger, whereby GG individuals exposed to nonsupportive parenting and randomized to the control condition had a greater increase in chronic anger by study follow-up, compared to those in the intervention, and this change associated with greater telomere shortening.

Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of individual differences and potential role of genetic status in moderating the relationship between environmental contexts and biological outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus