Limits...
Calorie restriction as an intervention in ageing.

López-Lluch G, Navas P - J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2016)

Bottom Line: CR produces a pleiotropic effect and improves multiple metabolic pathways, generating benefits to the whole organism.Finally, the anti-inflammatory effect of CR is an interesting emerging factor to be taken into consideration.In the present revision we focus on the general effect of CR and other mimetics in longevity, focusing especially on the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo, CABD-CSIC, CIBERER, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013, Sevilla, Spain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Resumé of CR effects on cellsCR induces many pathways that are involved in changes in mitochondrial physiology by activating AMPK‐ and SIRT‐dependent pathways and inducing mitochondrial turnover by balancing mitochondrial biogenesis with induction of mitophagy of damaged mitochondria. This regulation reduces the production of ROS by damaged mitochondria, thus reducing oxidative damage. This damage is also reduced by the induction of cell antioxidant activities such as CAT, SOD and GPx and by preventing the activation of proinflammatory processes by blocking the NFκB pathway. On the other hand, the role of plasma membrane redox system regulation in the CR effect on cells remains to be clarified but it seems that in aged cells and tissues the induction of this system by activation of Nrf2 not only prevents lipid peroxidation in membranes but can also regulate the response to external factors such as local factors or insulin. We cannot discard a putative role of this system in the regulation of the insulin response preventing insulin‐resistance in aged cells.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy-nc-nd
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834802&req=5

tjp6990-fig-0004: Resumé of CR effects on cellsCR induces many pathways that are involved in changes in mitochondrial physiology by activating AMPK‐ and SIRT‐dependent pathways and inducing mitochondrial turnover by balancing mitochondrial biogenesis with induction of mitophagy of damaged mitochondria. This regulation reduces the production of ROS by damaged mitochondria, thus reducing oxidative damage. This damage is also reduced by the induction of cell antioxidant activities such as CAT, SOD and GPx and by preventing the activation of proinflammatory processes by blocking the NFκB pathway. On the other hand, the role of plasma membrane redox system regulation in the CR effect on cells remains to be clarified but it seems that in aged cells and tissues the induction of this system by activation of Nrf2 not only prevents lipid peroxidation in membranes but can also regulate the response to external factors such as local factors or insulin. We cannot discard a putative role of this system in the regulation of the insulin response preventing insulin‐resistance in aged cells.

Mentions: The broad effect of CR on healthspan and longevity occurs through multiple mechanisms that involve most of the metabolic pathways in tissues and organs (Fig. 4). The major effectors are sirtuin deacetylases, AMPK and PGC‐1α. CR improves aerobic metabolism by increasing efficient mitochondrial metabolism, lowering endogenous ROS production at the same time as it increases the amount and activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. These molecular and physiological effects have also been found with some nutraceuticals and compounds that act as CR mimetics such as resveratrol, rapamycin or metformin. CR also affects the lipid composition of membranes by lowering oxidative damage. Further, the study of the mechanisms involved in the prevention of chronic inflammation induced by CR, probably through similar mechanisms to those found in mitochondrial regulation, is increasing and offers new opportunities to understand how CR prevents endogenous damage in the organism.


Calorie restriction as an intervention in ageing.

López-Lluch G, Navas P - J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2016)

Resumé of CR effects on cellsCR induces many pathways that are involved in changes in mitochondrial physiology by activating AMPK‐ and SIRT‐dependent pathways and inducing mitochondrial turnover by balancing mitochondrial biogenesis with induction of mitophagy of damaged mitochondria. This regulation reduces the production of ROS by damaged mitochondria, thus reducing oxidative damage. This damage is also reduced by the induction of cell antioxidant activities such as CAT, SOD and GPx and by preventing the activation of proinflammatory processes by blocking the NFκB pathway. On the other hand, the role of plasma membrane redox system regulation in the CR effect on cells remains to be clarified but it seems that in aged cells and tissues the induction of this system by activation of Nrf2 not only prevents lipid peroxidation in membranes but can also regulate the response to external factors such as local factors or insulin. We cannot discard a putative role of this system in the regulation of the insulin response preventing insulin‐resistance in aged cells.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy-nc-nd
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834802&req=5

tjp6990-fig-0004: Resumé of CR effects on cellsCR induces many pathways that are involved in changes in mitochondrial physiology by activating AMPK‐ and SIRT‐dependent pathways and inducing mitochondrial turnover by balancing mitochondrial biogenesis with induction of mitophagy of damaged mitochondria. This regulation reduces the production of ROS by damaged mitochondria, thus reducing oxidative damage. This damage is also reduced by the induction of cell antioxidant activities such as CAT, SOD and GPx and by preventing the activation of proinflammatory processes by blocking the NFκB pathway. On the other hand, the role of plasma membrane redox system regulation in the CR effect on cells remains to be clarified but it seems that in aged cells and tissues the induction of this system by activation of Nrf2 not only prevents lipid peroxidation in membranes but can also regulate the response to external factors such as local factors or insulin. We cannot discard a putative role of this system in the regulation of the insulin response preventing insulin‐resistance in aged cells.
Mentions: The broad effect of CR on healthspan and longevity occurs through multiple mechanisms that involve most of the metabolic pathways in tissues and organs (Fig. 4). The major effectors are sirtuin deacetylases, AMPK and PGC‐1α. CR improves aerobic metabolism by increasing efficient mitochondrial metabolism, lowering endogenous ROS production at the same time as it increases the amount and activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. These molecular and physiological effects have also been found with some nutraceuticals and compounds that act as CR mimetics such as resveratrol, rapamycin or metformin. CR also affects the lipid composition of membranes by lowering oxidative damage. Further, the study of the mechanisms involved in the prevention of chronic inflammation induced by CR, probably through similar mechanisms to those found in mitochondrial regulation, is increasing and offers new opportunities to understand how CR prevents endogenous damage in the organism.

Bottom Line: CR produces a pleiotropic effect and improves multiple metabolic pathways, generating benefits to the whole organism.Finally, the anti-inflammatory effect of CR is an interesting emerging factor to be taken into consideration.In the present revision we focus on the general effect of CR and other mimetics in longevity, focusing especially on the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo, CABD-CSIC, CIBERER, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013, Sevilla, Spain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus