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Retinol-binding protein 4 and its potential roles in hypercholesterolemia revealed by proteomics.

Jugnam-Ang W, Pannengpetch S, Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya P, Thippakorn C, Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya C, Lawung R, Prachayasittiku V - EXCLI J (2015)

Bottom Line: Confirmation by Western blotting revealed a significant reduction of RBP4 (approximately 50 %) in individual samples derived from the high group.Presumptive conclusion can be drawn that down-regulation of RBP4 might be attributable to the inflammation of adipocytes caused by the release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) from adipose tissues.However, the mechanism of gelsolin reduction remains unclear.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
Effects of hypercholesterolemia on alterations of serum proteins have not been fully elucidated. Herein, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with LC-MS searching has successfully been carried out to investigate the change of protein expression profiles as consequences of raised blood cholesterol at different levels (normal group: total cholesterol 200 mg/dL; borderline high group: total cholesterol 200-239 mg/dL; and high group: total cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL) (n = 45). Results revealed that down-regulation of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) (-2.26 fold), transthyretin (-1.25 fold) and gelsolin (-1.47 fold) was observed in the high group. Meanwhile, the other proteins such as haptoglobin, complement factor B and CD5 antigen-like protein were up-regulated upto +3.24, +1.96 and +2.04 fold, respectively. Confirmation by Western blotting revealed a significant reduction of RBP4 (approximately 50 %) in individual samples derived from the high group. Presumptive conclusion can be drawn that down-regulation of RBP4 might be attributable to the inflammation of adipocytes caused by the release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) from adipose tissues. Moreover, the decrease of transthyretin might also be taken into accounts since it is known that the transthyretin usually forms complex with RBP4 to prevent glomerular filtration and excretion through the kidney. The suppressing effect on RBP4 should be potentiated by the increase of complement factor B and CD5 antigen-like protein, which rendered the adipose tissues to overwhelm the liberation of RBP4 to blood circulation by metabolic and inflammatory processes. Such inflammation could further modulate the induction of cytokine release (e.g. IL-6 and IL-1β), resulting in the synthesis of acute phase protein, in particular, haptoglobin and C-reactive proteins from hepatocytes. However, the mechanism of gelsolin reduction remains unclear. Among these differentially expressed proteins, the RBP4 has been proposed as a major linkage between hypercholesterolemia, adipose tissues, liver and kidney, which is believed to be a potential biomarker for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders associated with dyslipidemia in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Determination of spot intensity of RBP4 by 2-DE (a) and Western blotting (b) in normal, borderline high, and high total cholesterol groups
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Figure 4: Determination of spot intensity of RBP4 by 2-DE (a) and Western blotting (b) in normal, borderline high, and high total cholesterol groups

Mentions: To further confirm the expression level of retinol-binding protein 4 found in 2-DE, Western blotting was carried out on individual samples (n = 15). As shown in Figure 4b(Fig. 4), the bands of RBP4 located around 23 kDa in each lane. Results from the band intensity analysis (Figure 4b(Fig. 4)) indicated that the expression of RBP4 in the borderline high and high groups were of approximately 30 % and 50 % lower than that of the normal group, which were in good agreement with those observed on the 2-DE gels (Figure 4a(Fig. 4)).


Retinol-binding protein 4 and its potential roles in hypercholesterolemia revealed by proteomics.

Jugnam-Ang W, Pannengpetch S, Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya P, Thippakorn C, Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya C, Lawung R, Prachayasittiku V - EXCLI J (2015)

Determination of spot intensity of RBP4 by 2-DE (a) and Western blotting (b) in normal, borderline high, and high total cholesterol groups
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834671&req=5

Figure 4: Determination of spot intensity of RBP4 by 2-DE (a) and Western blotting (b) in normal, borderline high, and high total cholesterol groups
Mentions: To further confirm the expression level of retinol-binding protein 4 found in 2-DE, Western blotting was carried out on individual samples (n = 15). As shown in Figure 4b(Fig. 4), the bands of RBP4 located around 23 kDa in each lane. Results from the band intensity analysis (Figure 4b(Fig. 4)) indicated that the expression of RBP4 in the borderline high and high groups were of approximately 30 % and 50 % lower than that of the normal group, which were in good agreement with those observed on the 2-DE gels (Figure 4a(Fig. 4)).

Bottom Line: Confirmation by Western blotting revealed a significant reduction of RBP4 (approximately 50 %) in individual samples derived from the high group.Presumptive conclusion can be drawn that down-regulation of RBP4 might be attributable to the inflammation of adipocytes caused by the release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) from adipose tissues.However, the mechanism of gelsolin reduction remains unclear.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
Effects of hypercholesterolemia on alterations of serum proteins have not been fully elucidated. Herein, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with LC-MS searching has successfully been carried out to investigate the change of protein expression profiles as consequences of raised blood cholesterol at different levels (normal group: total cholesterol 200 mg/dL; borderline high group: total cholesterol 200-239 mg/dL; and high group: total cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL) (n = 45). Results revealed that down-regulation of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) (-2.26 fold), transthyretin (-1.25 fold) and gelsolin (-1.47 fold) was observed in the high group. Meanwhile, the other proteins such as haptoglobin, complement factor B and CD5 antigen-like protein were up-regulated upto +3.24, +1.96 and +2.04 fold, respectively. Confirmation by Western blotting revealed a significant reduction of RBP4 (approximately 50 %) in individual samples derived from the high group. Presumptive conclusion can be drawn that down-regulation of RBP4 might be attributable to the inflammation of adipocytes caused by the release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) from adipose tissues. Moreover, the decrease of transthyretin might also be taken into accounts since it is known that the transthyretin usually forms complex with RBP4 to prevent glomerular filtration and excretion through the kidney. The suppressing effect on RBP4 should be potentiated by the increase of complement factor B and CD5 antigen-like protein, which rendered the adipose tissues to overwhelm the liberation of RBP4 to blood circulation by metabolic and inflammatory processes. Such inflammation could further modulate the induction of cytokine release (e.g. IL-6 and IL-1β), resulting in the synthesis of acute phase protein, in particular, haptoglobin and C-reactive proteins from hepatocytes. However, the mechanism of gelsolin reduction remains unclear. Among these differentially expressed proteins, the RBP4 has been proposed as a major linkage between hypercholesterolemia, adipose tissues, liver and kidney, which is believed to be a potential biomarker for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders associated with dyslipidemia in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus