Limits...
Decomposing Self-Control: Individual Differences in Goal Pursuit Despite Interfering Aversion, Temptation, and Distraction.

Steimke R, Stelzel C, Gaschler R, Rothkirch M, Ludwig VU, Paschke LM, Trempler I, Kathmann N, Goschke T, Walter H - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations.Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants.Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each other and (2) these three domains are related to other measures of self-control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Technische Universität DresdenDresden, Germany; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting, and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2) to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report. The final sample consisted of 116 participants. The task required participants to identify target letters "E" or "F" presented at a cued target location while the distractors were presented. Behavioral and eyetracking data were obtained during the performance of the task. High task performance was encouraged via monetary incentives. In addition to the attentional self-control task, self-reported self-control was assessed and participants performed a color Stroop task, an unsolvable anagram task and a delay of gratification task using chocolate sweets. We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations. Overall task performance on our task correlated with self-reported self-control ability. Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants. Additionally, participants who made a self-controlled decision in the delay of gratification task were less distracted by temptations in our task than participants who made an impulsive choice. Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each other and (2) these three domains are related to other measures of self-control.

No MeSH data available.


Display of eyetracking data.(A) the path of gaze distance in visual angle from the target during distractor presentation starting at distractor onset, (B) mean of gaze distance, (C) and of the standard deviation of gaze distance during the entire distractor presentation. Asterisks (∗) indicate a significant difference at p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for within-subjects comparisons (Loftus and Masson, 1994).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834631&req=5

Figure 3: Display of eyetracking data.(A) the path of gaze distance in visual angle from the target during distractor presentation starting at distractor onset, (B) mean of gaze distance, (C) and of the standard deviation of gaze distance during the entire distractor presentation. Asterisks (∗) indicate a significant difference at p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for within-subjects comparisons (Loftus and Masson, 1994).

Mentions: Gaze path, mean gaze distance, and standard deviation of the gaze distance are displayed in Figure 3. The gaze path analysis revealed an effect of distraction for the different conditions starting 200 ms after distractor onset and peaking at around 1000 ms after distractor onset (Figure 3A). The conditions were compared over the whole distractor presentation period by calculating the means for aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction (see Table 2 for the results of t-testing). There was a significantly higher gaze distance during the erotic condition in comparison to the neutral contralateral condition and during the neutral contralateral condition in comparison to the no-distractor condition (Figure 3B), but not for the disgust condition compared with neutral ipsilateral distraction. Additionally, aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction all resulted in a higher standard deviation of the gaze distance as compared to their respective control condition (Figure 3C; p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons, see Appendix E for exact values of all conditions). In order to calculate the precision of the eye tracking calibration the mean deviation from target dots during calibration was averaged across sessions and participants. The calculation revealed a mean deviation of 0.22° and a standard deviation of 0.01° visual angle, indicating high accuracy of eyetracking data.


Decomposing Self-Control: Individual Differences in Goal Pursuit Despite Interfering Aversion, Temptation, and Distraction.

Steimke R, Stelzel C, Gaschler R, Rothkirch M, Ludwig VU, Paschke LM, Trempler I, Kathmann N, Goschke T, Walter H - Front Psychol (2016)

Display of eyetracking data.(A) the path of gaze distance in visual angle from the target during distractor presentation starting at distractor onset, (B) mean of gaze distance, (C) and of the standard deviation of gaze distance during the entire distractor presentation. Asterisks (∗) indicate a significant difference at p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for within-subjects comparisons (Loftus and Masson, 1994).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834631&req=5

Figure 3: Display of eyetracking data.(A) the path of gaze distance in visual angle from the target during distractor presentation starting at distractor onset, (B) mean of gaze distance, (C) and of the standard deviation of gaze distance during the entire distractor presentation. Asterisks (∗) indicate a significant difference at p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for within-subjects comparisons (Loftus and Masson, 1994).
Mentions: Gaze path, mean gaze distance, and standard deviation of the gaze distance are displayed in Figure 3. The gaze path analysis revealed an effect of distraction for the different conditions starting 200 ms after distractor onset and peaking at around 1000 ms after distractor onset (Figure 3A). The conditions were compared over the whole distractor presentation period by calculating the means for aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction (see Table 2 for the results of t-testing). There was a significantly higher gaze distance during the erotic condition in comparison to the neutral contralateral condition and during the neutral contralateral condition in comparison to the no-distractor condition (Figure 3B), but not for the disgust condition compared with neutral ipsilateral distraction. Additionally, aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction all resulted in a higher standard deviation of the gaze distance as compared to their respective control condition (Figure 3C; p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons, see Appendix E for exact values of all conditions). In order to calculate the precision of the eye tracking calibration the mean deviation from target dots during calibration was averaged across sessions and participants. The calculation revealed a mean deviation of 0.22° and a standard deviation of 0.01° visual angle, indicating high accuracy of eyetracking data.

Bottom Line: We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations.Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants.Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each other and (2) these three domains are related to other measures of self-control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Technische Universität DresdenDresden, Germany; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting, and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2) to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report. The final sample consisted of 116 participants. The task required participants to identify target letters "E" or "F" presented at a cued target location while the distractors were presented. Behavioral and eyetracking data were obtained during the performance of the task. High task performance was encouraged via monetary incentives. In addition to the attentional self-control task, self-reported self-control was assessed and participants performed a color Stroop task, an unsolvable anagram task and a delay of gratification task using chocolate sweets. We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations. Overall task performance on our task correlated with self-reported self-control ability. Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants. Additionally, participants who made a self-controlled decision in the delay of gratification task were less distracted by temptations in our task than participants who made an impulsive choice. Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each other and (2) these three domains are related to other measures of self-control.

No MeSH data available.