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Decomposing Self-Control: Individual Differences in Goal Pursuit Despite Interfering Aversion, Temptation, and Distraction.

Steimke R, Stelzel C, Gaschler R, Rothkirch M, Ludwig VU, Paschke LM, Trempler I, Kathmann N, Goschke T, Walter H - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations.Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants.Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each other and (2) these three domains are related to other measures of self-control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Technische Universität DresdenDresden, Germany; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting, and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2) to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report. The final sample consisted of 116 participants. The task required participants to identify target letters "E" or "F" presented at a cued target location while the distractors were presented. Behavioral and eyetracking data were obtained during the performance of the task. High task performance was encouraged via monetary incentives. In addition to the attentional self-control task, self-reported self-control was assessed and participants performed a color Stroop task, an unsolvable anagram task and a delay of gratification task using chocolate sweets. We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations. Overall task performance on our task correlated with self-reported self-control ability. Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants. Additionally, participants who made a self-controlled decision in the delay of gratification task were less distracted by temptations in our task than participants who made an impulsive choice. Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each other and (2) these three domains are related to other measures of self-control.

No MeSH data available.


Display of behavioral data.(A) Mean RTs and (B) percent errors. Asterisks (∗) indicate a significant difference at p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for within-subjects comparisons (Loftus and Masson, 1994).
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Figure 2: Display of behavioral data.(A) Mean RTs and (B) percent errors. Asterisks (∗) indicate a significant difference at p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for within-subjects comparisons (Loftus and Masson, 1994).

Mentions: Participants were generally slower and made more errors in the self-control conditions compared to their respective control conditions, indicating that additional processing was involved when tempting, aversive or distracting stimuli were present (Figure 2). As displayed in Table 1, all three t-tests yielded significant results for RTs and error rates (p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons). The exact values for mean ratings of valence, arousal, and attraction as well as RTs and error rates can be found in Appendix E. Note that the distribution of error rates was significantly skewed, with most participants committing few errors. Despite this, for simplicity, results of parametric analyses are reported here. However, non-parametric analyses of the error data yielded similar results (Appendix F).


Decomposing Self-Control: Individual Differences in Goal Pursuit Despite Interfering Aversion, Temptation, and Distraction.

Steimke R, Stelzel C, Gaschler R, Rothkirch M, Ludwig VU, Paschke LM, Trempler I, Kathmann N, Goschke T, Walter H - Front Psychol (2016)

Display of behavioral data.(A) Mean RTs and (B) percent errors. Asterisks (∗) indicate a significant difference at p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for within-subjects comparisons (Loftus and Masson, 1994).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834631&req=5

Figure 2: Display of behavioral data.(A) Mean RTs and (B) percent errors. Asterisks (∗) indicate a significant difference at p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for within-subjects comparisons (Loftus and Masson, 1994).
Mentions: Participants were generally slower and made more errors in the self-control conditions compared to their respective control conditions, indicating that additional processing was involved when tempting, aversive or distracting stimuli were present (Figure 2). As displayed in Table 1, all three t-tests yielded significant results for RTs and error rates (p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected for the six comparisons). The exact values for mean ratings of valence, arousal, and attraction as well as RTs and error rates can be found in Appendix E. Note that the distribution of error rates was significantly skewed, with most participants committing few errors. Despite this, for simplicity, results of parametric analyses are reported here. However, non-parametric analyses of the error data yielded similar results (Appendix F).

Bottom Line: We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations.Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants.Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each other and (2) these three domains are related to other measures of self-control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Technische Universität DresdenDresden, Germany; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting, and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2) to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report. The final sample consisted of 116 participants. The task required participants to identify target letters "E" or "F" presented at a cued target location while the distractors were presented. Behavioral and eyetracking data were obtained during the performance of the task. High task performance was encouraged via monetary incentives. In addition to the attentional self-control task, self-reported self-control was assessed and participants performed a color Stroop task, an unsolvable anagram task and a delay of gratification task using chocolate sweets. We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations. Overall task performance on our task correlated with self-reported self-control ability. Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants. Additionally, participants who made a self-controlled decision in the delay of gratification task were less distracted by temptations in our task than participants who made an impulsive choice. Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each other and (2) these three domains are related to other measures of self-control.

No MeSH data available.