Machine-Assisted Organic Synthesis.
Bottom Line: In this Review we describe how the advent of machines is impacting on organic synthesis programs, with particular emphasis on the practical issues associated with the design of chemical reactors.Additional technologies have been developed to facilitate more specialized reaction techniques such as electrochemical and photochemical methods.All of these areas create both opportunities and challenges during adoption as enabling technologies.
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW (UK). firstname.lastname@example.org.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: One of the most common processes operating under triphasic conditions on a laboratory research scale is continuous hydrogenation. As this area has been previously described,36 here we will only highlight one of our own recent reports using the commercially available HEL FlowCAT fixed‐bed, trickle‐flow reactor (Figure 8).37 In this study, ethyl nicotinate was fully hydrogenated over a packed catalyst bed consisting of either Pd/Al2O3 or Rh/Al2O3. The best results were obtained when a 2.0 m solution of ethyl nicotinate in ethyl acetate was pumped over 4 g of the rhodium‐containing catalyst with 0.6 mL min−1 H2 (100 bar) at a temperature of 160 °C. Under these conditions it was possible to process 530 g of starting material in 6.5 h (equivalent to ca. 2 kg day−1). It is clear that such bench‐top apparatus opens a world of opportunities in terms of scalability that would otherwise not be possible when used in a standard laboratory environment.
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW (UK). email@example.com.