Machine-Assisted Organic Synthesis.
Bottom Line: In this Review we describe how the advent of machines is impacting on organic synthesis programs, with particular emphasis on the practical issues associated with the design of chemical reactors.Additional technologies have been developed to facilitate more specialized reaction techniques such as electrochemical and photochemical methods.All of these areas create both opportunities and challenges during adoption as enabling technologies.
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW (UK). email@example.com.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The coating of metallic nanoparticles with carbon is receiving interest as a means by which to increase the stability of nanoparticles against degradation processes such as oxidation. A combustion jet reactor has been reported that facilitates the production of carbon‐coated copper nanoparticles (Figure 12).55 In this reactor a solution of copper formate, an inexpensive precursor compound, was injected into a fast‐moving stream of combustion products from the burning of excess hydrogen with oxygen in a nitrogen environment. At the elevated temperatures found in this gaseous stream (approximately 600 °C), water evaporated from precursor droplets, thereby leaving solid particles of Cu(HCO2)2, which subsequently decomposed to CuO and Cu2O. These oxide products were reduced in the hydrogen‐rich gas stream to form Cu0. At the same time, the reduction of the decomposition products (CO and CO2) led to the deposition of carbon on the surface of the copper nanoparticles. By adjusting the dimensions of the reactor, it was possible to manipulate the residence time and thus final nanoparticle size. Development of this new machine made it possible to precisely control the product characteristics, which would not have been easy with traditional batch methods.
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW (UK). firstname.lastname@example.org.