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Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

Breitling C, Zaehle T, Dannhauer M, Bonath B, Tegelbeckers J, Flechtner HH, Krauel K - Front Cell Neurosci (2016)

Bottom Line: The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation.Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed.ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Magdeburg Magdeburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13-17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Commission errors in Flanker task. (A) commission errors in different tDCS conditions when three sessions of each participant are considered, (B) learning effect, ***p < 0.001, error bars represent one standard deviation.
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Figure 2: Commission errors in Flanker task. (A) commission errors in different tDCS conditions when three sessions of each participant are considered, (B) learning effect, ***p < 0.001, error bars represent one standard deviation.

Mentions: The overall ANOVA did not show effects of tDCS regarding commission errors, omission errors, reaction times and reaction time variability, although descriptive data suggested diminished commission errors in the ADHD group after anodal stimulation (Figure 2A, Supplementary Table S1). The analysis of session number, however, revealed a significant learning effect for commission errors [F(2,80) = 15.71, p < 0.001], reaction times [F(2,80)= 6.81, p < 0.01] and reaction time variability [F(2,80)= 3.88, p < 0.05]. Participants of both groups made more errors in the first session compared to the second [t(41)= 4.63, p < 0.001] and the third session [t(41)= 4.38, p < 0.001] (Figure 2B). Reaction times and reaction time variability decreased also from the first to the second session [t(41)= 2.99, p < 0.01, t(41)= 2.81, p < 0.01]. See Supplementary Table S2 for detailed values. To resolve the confounding of learning and stimulation effects, we subsequently focused in an exploratory analysis on the first session of each participant. The three resulting ADHD groups (anodal, cathodal, sham, n = 7 in each group) as well as the three control groups did not differ in age or intelligence. Symptom severity did not differ between ADHD groups and the distribution of clinical subtypes and medication was comparable (all p > 0.1).


Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

Breitling C, Zaehle T, Dannhauer M, Bonath B, Tegelbeckers J, Flechtner HH, Krauel K - Front Cell Neurosci (2016)

Commission errors in Flanker task. (A) commission errors in different tDCS conditions when three sessions of each participant are considered, (B) learning effect, ***p < 0.001, error bars represent one standard deviation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834583&req=5

Figure 2: Commission errors in Flanker task. (A) commission errors in different tDCS conditions when three sessions of each participant are considered, (B) learning effect, ***p < 0.001, error bars represent one standard deviation.
Mentions: The overall ANOVA did not show effects of tDCS regarding commission errors, omission errors, reaction times and reaction time variability, although descriptive data suggested diminished commission errors in the ADHD group after anodal stimulation (Figure 2A, Supplementary Table S1). The analysis of session number, however, revealed a significant learning effect for commission errors [F(2,80) = 15.71, p < 0.001], reaction times [F(2,80)= 6.81, p < 0.01] and reaction time variability [F(2,80)= 3.88, p < 0.05]. Participants of both groups made more errors in the first session compared to the second [t(41)= 4.63, p < 0.001] and the third session [t(41)= 4.38, p < 0.001] (Figure 2B). Reaction times and reaction time variability decreased also from the first to the second session [t(41)= 2.99, p < 0.01, t(41)= 2.81, p < 0.01]. See Supplementary Table S2 for detailed values. To resolve the confounding of learning and stimulation effects, we subsequently focused in an exploratory analysis on the first session of each participant. The three resulting ADHD groups (anodal, cathodal, sham, n = 7 in each group) as well as the three control groups did not differ in age or intelligence. Symptom severity did not differ between ADHD groups and the distribution of clinical subtypes and medication was comparable (all p > 0.1).

Bottom Line: The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation.Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed.ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Magdeburg Magdeburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13-17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus