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Communities on the Move: Pedestrian-Oriented Zoning as a Facilitator of Adult Active Travel to Work in the United States.

Chriqui JF, Leider J, Thrun E, Nicholson LM, Slater S - Front Public Health (2016)

Bottom Line: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for 3,914 municipal-level jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities in 48 states and the District of Columbia, and that collectively covered 72.9% of the U.S. population.Public transit use was associated with code reform zoning and a number of zoning measures in Southern jurisdictions but not in non-Southern jurisdictions.As jurisdictions revisit their zoning and land use policies, they may want to evaluate the pedestrian-orientation of their zoning codes so that they can plan for pedestrian improvements that will help to encourage active travel to work.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Division of Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Communities across the United States have been reforming their zoning codes to create pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods with increased street connectivity, mixed use and higher density, open space, transportation infrastructure, and a traditional neighborhood structure. Zoning code reforms include new urbanist zoning such as the SmartCode, form-based codes, transects, transportation and pedestrian-oriented developments, and traditional neighborhood developments.

Purpose: To examine the relationship of zoning code reforms and more active living--oriented zoning provisions with adult active travel to work via walking, biking, or by using public transit.

Methods: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for 3,914 municipal-level jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities in 48 states and the District of Columbia, and that collectively covered 72.9% of the U.S. population. Zoning codes were evaluated for the presence of code reform zoning and nine pedestrian-oriented zoning provisions (1 = yes): sidewalks, crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, bike lanes, bike parking, bike-pedestrian trails/paths, mixed-use development, and other walkability/pedestrian orientation. A zoning scale reflected the number of provisions addressed (out of 10). Five continuous outcome measures were constructed using 2010-2014 American Community Survey municipal-level 5-year estimates to assess the percentage of workers: walking, biking, walking or biking, or taking public transit to work OR engaged in any active travel to work. Regression models controlled for municipal-level socioeconomic characteristics and a GIS-constructed walkability scale and were clustered on county with robust standard errors.

Results: Adjusted models indicated that several pedestrian-oriented zoning provisions were statistically associated (p < 0.05 or lower) with increased rates of walking, biking, or engaging in any active travel (walking, biking, or any active travel) to work: code reform zoning, bike parking (street furniture), bike lanes, bike-pedestrian trails/paths, other walkability, mixed-use zoning, and a higher score on the zoning scale. Public transit use was associated with code reform zoning and a number of zoning measures in Southern jurisdictions but not in non-Southern jurisdictions.

Conclusion: As jurisdictions revisit their zoning and land use policies, they may want to evaluate the pedestrian-orientation of their zoning codes so that they can plan for pedestrian improvements that will help to encourage active travel to work.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence of zoning provisions, South vs. Non-South. N = 3914 jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities representing 72.90% of the U.S. population, located in 48 states and the District of Columbia; N = 1108 jurisdictions in the South and N = 2806 jurisdictions in non-Southern regions of the country. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001; p-value generated from a t-test comparing prevalence in Southern and non-Southern jurisdictions.
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Figure 1: Prevalence of zoning provisions, South vs. Non-South. N = 3914 jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities representing 72.90% of the U.S. population, located in 48 states and the District of Columbia; N = 1108 jurisdictions in the South and N = 2806 jurisdictions in non-Southern regions of the country. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001; p-value generated from a t-test comparing prevalence in Southern and non-Southern jurisdictions.

Mentions: Figure 1 presents the prevalence of code reform zoning and the nine zoning provisions in Southern and non-Southern jurisdictions. Code reform zoning is twice as prevalent in the South as outside it, and five of the nine active living-oriented zoning provisions are significantly more prevalent in the South at the p < 0.05 level or lower.


Communities on the Move: Pedestrian-Oriented Zoning as a Facilitator of Adult Active Travel to Work in the United States.

Chriqui JF, Leider J, Thrun E, Nicholson LM, Slater S - Front Public Health (2016)

Prevalence of zoning provisions, South vs. Non-South. N = 3914 jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities representing 72.90% of the U.S. population, located in 48 states and the District of Columbia; N = 1108 jurisdictions in the South and N = 2806 jurisdictions in non-Southern regions of the country. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001; p-value generated from a t-test comparing prevalence in Southern and non-Southern jurisdictions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834572&req=5

Figure 1: Prevalence of zoning provisions, South vs. Non-South. N = 3914 jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities representing 72.90% of the U.S. population, located in 48 states and the District of Columbia; N = 1108 jurisdictions in the South and N = 2806 jurisdictions in non-Southern regions of the country. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001; p-value generated from a t-test comparing prevalence in Southern and non-Southern jurisdictions.
Mentions: Figure 1 presents the prevalence of code reform zoning and the nine zoning provisions in Southern and non-Southern jurisdictions. Code reform zoning is twice as prevalent in the South as outside it, and five of the nine active living-oriented zoning provisions are significantly more prevalent in the South at the p < 0.05 level or lower.

Bottom Line: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for 3,914 municipal-level jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities in 48 states and the District of Columbia, and that collectively covered 72.9% of the U.S. population.Public transit use was associated with code reform zoning and a number of zoning measures in Southern jurisdictions but not in non-Southern jurisdictions.As jurisdictions revisit their zoning and land use policies, they may want to evaluate the pedestrian-orientation of their zoning codes so that they can plan for pedestrian improvements that will help to encourage active travel to work.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Division of Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Communities across the United States have been reforming their zoning codes to create pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods with increased street connectivity, mixed use and higher density, open space, transportation infrastructure, and a traditional neighborhood structure. Zoning code reforms include new urbanist zoning such as the SmartCode, form-based codes, transects, transportation and pedestrian-oriented developments, and traditional neighborhood developments.

Purpose: To examine the relationship of zoning code reforms and more active living--oriented zoning provisions with adult active travel to work via walking, biking, or by using public transit.

Methods: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for 3,914 municipal-level jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities in 48 states and the District of Columbia, and that collectively covered 72.9% of the U.S. population. Zoning codes were evaluated for the presence of code reform zoning and nine pedestrian-oriented zoning provisions (1 = yes): sidewalks, crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, bike lanes, bike parking, bike-pedestrian trails/paths, mixed-use development, and other walkability/pedestrian orientation. A zoning scale reflected the number of provisions addressed (out of 10). Five continuous outcome measures were constructed using 2010-2014 American Community Survey municipal-level 5-year estimates to assess the percentage of workers: walking, biking, walking or biking, or taking public transit to work OR engaged in any active travel to work. Regression models controlled for municipal-level socioeconomic characteristics and a GIS-constructed walkability scale and were clustered on county with robust standard errors.

Results: Adjusted models indicated that several pedestrian-oriented zoning provisions were statistically associated (p < 0.05 or lower) with increased rates of walking, biking, or engaging in any active travel (walking, biking, or any active travel) to work: code reform zoning, bike parking (street furniture), bike lanes, bike-pedestrian trails/paths, other walkability, mixed-use zoning, and a higher score on the zoning scale. Public transit use was associated with code reform zoning and a number of zoning measures in Southern jurisdictions but not in non-Southern jurisdictions.

Conclusion: As jurisdictions revisit their zoning and land use policies, they may want to evaluate the pedestrian-orientation of their zoning codes so that they can plan for pedestrian improvements that will help to encourage active travel to work.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus