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Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish.

Biechl D, Tietje K, Gerlach G, Wullimann MF - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life.Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection.We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences &Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Grosshadernerstr. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried Germany.

ABSTRACT
Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Kin odor test II (see Fig. 1c): Effects of olfactory imprinting.(a) Total cell quantity of S100 + mOSNs and crypt cells. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). Imprinting has no effect on total cell numbers (mOSNs U: 147, p = 0.227, Mdnimpr = 54, Mdnnon impr = 61; crypt cells U: 156, p = 0.351, Mdnimpr = 6, Mdnnon impr = 8, nimpr = 19, nnon impr = 20). (b) S100 +/pERK + mOSNs shown as percentage of all S100 + mOSNs per larva. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: *p < 0.05, *p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (also applies to (c)). Significantly more S100 + mOSN are activated in imprinted larvae versus non-imprinted control larvae exposed to kin odor (U: 18, p = 0.008, Mdnimpr = 2.6, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = nnon impr = 10). (c): A significant higher number of crypt cells are activated after kin odor stimulation in imprinted compared to non-imprinted larvae (U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 100, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr kin = nnon impr kin = 9) and compared to imprinted control larvae stimulation (U: U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 100, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr kin = 10, nimpr ctr = 9). No difference in activation was found within non-imprinted larvae. (d) The total numbers of pERK activated, but S100 negative cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells are shown. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). * indicates statistical significance p: **p < 0.01. Cell activation was similar for all treatments in cOSNs (H(2) = 5.405, p = 0.144) (nimpri kin = 10, nimpr ctr = 9, nnon impr kin = 10, nnon impr ctr = 10). A significantly higher number of mOSNs was found in imprinted larvae stimulated with kin compared to control stimulation (Mann-Whitney U: 13, p = 0.008, Mdn impr kin = 17.5, Mdnimpr ctr = 0). No S100- negative crypt cells were observed.
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f6: Kin odor test II (see Fig. 1c): Effects of olfactory imprinting.(a) Total cell quantity of S100 + mOSNs and crypt cells. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). Imprinting has no effect on total cell numbers (mOSNs U: 147, p = 0.227, Mdnimpr = 54, Mdnnon impr = 61; crypt cells U: 156, p = 0.351, Mdnimpr = 6, Mdnnon impr = 8, nimpr = 19, nnon impr = 20). (b) S100 +/pERK + mOSNs shown as percentage of all S100 + mOSNs per larva. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: *p < 0.05, *p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (also applies to (c)). Significantly more S100 + mOSN are activated in imprinted larvae versus non-imprinted control larvae exposed to kin odor (U: 18, p = 0.008, Mdnimpr = 2.6, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = nnon impr = 10). (c): A significant higher number of crypt cells are activated after kin odor stimulation in imprinted compared to non-imprinted larvae (U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 100, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr kin = nnon impr kin = 9) and compared to imprinted control larvae stimulation (U: U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 100, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr kin = 10, nimpr ctr = 9). No difference in activation was found within non-imprinted larvae. (d) The total numbers of pERK activated, but S100 negative cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells are shown. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). * indicates statistical significance p: **p < 0.01. Cell activation was similar for all treatments in cOSNs (H(2) = 5.405, p = 0.144) (nimpri kin = 10, nimpr ctr = 9, nnon impr kin = 10, nnon impr ctr = 10). A significantly higher number of mOSNs was found in imprinted larvae stimulated with kin compared to control stimulation (Mann-Whitney U: 13, p = 0.008, Mdn impr kin = 17.5, Mdnimpr ctr = 0). No S100- negative crypt cells were observed.

Mentions: As in the first experiment using kin odor stimulation, there is no significant difference in total quantity of S100+mOSNs and crypt cells between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (Fig. 6a).


Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish.

Biechl D, Tietje K, Gerlach G, Wullimann MF - Sci Rep (2016)

Kin odor test II (see Fig. 1c): Effects of olfactory imprinting.(a) Total cell quantity of S100 + mOSNs and crypt cells. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). Imprinting has no effect on total cell numbers (mOSNs U: 147, p = 0.227, Mdnimpr = 54, Mdnnon impr = 61; crypt cells U: 156, p = 0.351, Mdnimpr = 6, Mdnnon impr = 8, nimpr = 19, nnon impr = 20). (b) S100 +/pERK + mOSNs shown as percentage of all S100 + mOSNs per larva. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: *p < 0.05, *p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (also applies to (c)). Significantly more S100 + mOSN are activated in imprinted larvae versus non-imprinted control larvae exposed to kin odor (U: 18, p = 0.008, Mdnimpr = 2.6, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = nnon impr = 10). (c): A significant higher number of crypt cells are activated after kin odor stimulation in imprinted compared to non-imprinted larvae (U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 100, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr kin = nnon impr kin = 9) and compared to imprinted control larvae stimulation (U: U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 100, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr kin = 10, nimpr ctr = 9). No difference in activation was found within non-imprinted larvae. (d) The total numbers of pERK activated, but S100 negative cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells are shown. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). * indicates statistical significance p: **p < 0.01. Cell activation was similar for all treatments in cOSNs (H(2) = 5.405, p = 0.144) (nimpri kin = 10, nimpr ctr = 9, nnon impr kin = 10, nnon impr ctr = 10). A significantly higher number of mOSNs was found in imprinted larvae stimulated with kin compared to control stimulation (Mann-Whitney U: 13, p = 0.008, Mdn impr kin = 17.5, Mdnimpr ctr = 0). No S100- negative crypt cells were observed.
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f6: Kin odor test II (see Fig. 1c): Effects of olfactory imprinting.(a) Total cell quantity of S100 + mOSNs and crypt cells. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). Imprinting has no effect on total cell numbers (mOSNs U: 147, p = 0.227, Mdnimpr = 54, Mdnnon impr = 61; crypt cells U: 156, p = 0.351, Mdnimpr = 6, Mdnnon impr = 8, nimpr = 19, nnon impr = 20). (b) S100 +/pERK + mOSNs shown as percentage of all S100 + mOSNs per larva. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: *p < 0.05, *p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (also applies to (c)). Significantly more S100 + mOSN are activated in imprinted larvae versus non-imprinted control larvae exposed to kin odor (U: 18, p = 0.008, Mdnimpr = 2.6, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = nnon impr = 10). (c): A significant higher number of crypt cells are activated after kin odor stimulation in imprinted compared to non-imprinted larvae (U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 100, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr kin = nnon impr kin = 9) and compared to imprinted control larvae stimulation (U: U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 100, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr kin = 10, nimpr ctr = 9). No difference in activation was found within non-imprinted larvae. (d) The total numbers of pERK activated, but S100 negative cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells are shown. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). * indicates statistical significance p: **p < 0.01. Cell activation was similar for all treatments in cOSNs (H(2) = 5.405, p = 0.144) (nimpri kin = 10, nimpr ctr = 9, nnon impr kin = 10, nnon impr ctr = 10). A significantly higher number of mOSNs was found in imprinted larvae stimulated with kin compared to control stimulation (Mann-Whitney U: 13, p = 0.008, Mdn impr kin = 17.5, Mdnimpr ctr = 0). No S100- negative crypt cells were observed.
Mentions: As in the first experiment using kin odor stimulation, there is no significant difference in total quantity of S100+mOSNs and crypt cells between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (Fig. 6a).

Bottom Line: Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life.Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection.We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences &Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Grosshadernerstr. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried Germany.

ABSTRACT
Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus