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Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish.

Biechl D, Tietje K, Gerlach G, Wullimann MF - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life.Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection.We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences &Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Grosshadernerstr. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried Germany.

ABSTRACT
Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Kin odor test I (see Fig. 1b): Effects of olfactory imprinting.(a) Total cell quantity of S100+mOSNs and crypt cells. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). No significant difference in total number of mOSNs and crypt cells was found (mOSNs Mann-Whitney U: 104.5, p = 0.109, Mdnimpr = 182.5, Mdnnon impr = 117; crypt cells U: 149, p = 0.894, Mdnimpr = 9, Mdnnon impr = 7, nimpr = 18, nnon impr = 17). (b) S100+/pERK+mOSNs shown as percentage of all S100 + mOSNs per larva. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: *p < 0.05, *p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (also applies to (c) S100+mOSNs show no difference in activation between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae after kin stimulation. Number of activated mOSNs is significantly higher in imprinted larvae versus non-imprinted control larvae (Mann-Whitney U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 3.25, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 11, nnon impr = 7). (c) S100+/pERK+crypt cells shown as percentage of all S100 + crypt cells per larva. S100 + crypt cells show no difference in activation between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae after kin stimulation U: 15, p = 0.035 [Bonferroni correction], Mdnimpr = 30, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 7, nnon impr = 10). A significant difference between imprinted and non-imprinted control larvae exists (U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 35, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 11, nnon impr = 7). (d) The total numbers of pERK activated, but S100 negative cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells are shown. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: **p < 0.01. No difference in cell activation was found in either cOSNs (Kruskall-Wallis H(2) = 1.729, p = 0.630) or mOSNs (H(2) = 1.901, p = 0.593) (nimpri kin = 7, nimpr ctr = 11, nnon impr kin = 10, nnon impr ctr  = 7).
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f5: Kin odor test I (see Fig. 1b): Effects of olfactory imprinting.(a) Total cell quantity of S100+mOSNs and crypt cells. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). No significant difference in total number of mOSNs and crypt cells was found (mOSNs Mann-Whitney U: 104.5, p = 0.109, Mdnimpr = 182.5, Mdnnon impr = 117; crypt cells U: 149, p = 0.894, Mdnimpr = 9, Mdnnon impr = 7, nimpr = 18, nnon impr = 17). (b) S100+/pERK+mOSNs shown as percentage of all S100 + mOSNs per larva. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: *p < 0.05, *p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (also applies to (c) S100+mOSNs show no difference in activation between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae after kin stimulation. Number of activated mOSNs is significantly higher in imprinted larvae versus non-imprinted control larvae (Mann-Whitney U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 3.25, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 11, nnon impr = 7). (c) S100+/pERK+crypt cells shown as percentage of all S100 + crypt cells per larva. S100 + crypt cells show no difference in activation between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae after kin stimulation U: 15, p = 0.035 [Bonferroni correction], Mdnimpr = 30, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 7, nnon impr = 10). A significant difference between imprinted and non-imprinted control larvae exists (U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 35, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 11, nnon impr = 7). (d) The total numbers of pERK activated, but S100 negative cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells are shown. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: **p < 0.01. No difference in cell activation was found in either cOSNs (Kruskall-Wallis H(2) = 1.729, p = 0.630) or mOSNs (H(2) = 1.901, p = 0.593) (nimpri kin = 7, nimpr ctr = 11, nnon impr kin = 10, nnon impr ctr  = 7).

Mentions: First, we were interested if there was a quantitative difference of S100 + mOSNs and crypt cells between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (Fig. 5a). When plotting all detected S100 + mOSNs and crypt cells independent of pERK immunopositivity, no significant difference between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae was observed. Imprinted as well as non-imprinted larvae show nearly the same amount of S100 + mOSNs or crypt cells. Therefore, we can exclude that preventing olfactory imprinting in zebrafish larvae has an effect on total OSN cell number (i.e. S100 + mOSN and crypt cell) development within the olfactory epithelium.


Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish.

Biechl D, Tietje K, Gerlach G, Wullimann MF - Sci Rep (2016)

Kin odor test I (see Fig. 1b): Effects of olfactory imprinting.(a) Total cell quantity of S100+mOSNs and crypt cells. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). No significant difference in total number of mOSNs and crypt cells was found (mOSNs Mann-Whitney U: 104.5, p = 0.109, Mdnimpr = 182.5, Mdnnon impr = 117; crypt cells U: 149, p = 0.894, Mdnimpr = 9, Mdnnon impr = 7, nimpr = 18, nnon impr = 17). (b) S100+/pERK+mOSNs shown as percentage of all S100 + mOSNs per larva. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: *p < 0.05, *p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (also applies to (c) S100+mOSNs show no difference in activation between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae after kin stimulation. Number of activated mOSNs is significantly higher in imprinted larvae versus non-imprinted control larvae (Mann-Whitney U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 3.25, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 11, nnon impr = 7). (c) S100+/pERK+crypt cells shown as percentage of all S100 + crypt cells per larva. S100 + crypt cells show no difference in activation between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae after kin stimulation U: 15, p = 0.035 [Bonferroni correction], Mdnimpr = 30, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 7, nnon impr = 10). A significant difference between imprinted and non-imprinted control larvae exists (U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 35, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 11, nnon impr = 7). (d) The total numbers of pERK activated, but S100 negative cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells are shown. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: **p < 0.01. No difference in cell activation was found in either cOSNs (Kruskall-Wallis H(2) = 1.729, p = 0.630) or mOSNs (H(2) = 1.901, p = 0.593) (nimpri kin = 7, nimpr ctr = 11, nnon impr kin = 10, nnon impr ctr  = 7).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834543&req=5

f5: Kin odor test I (see Fig. 1b): Effects of olfactory imprinting.(a) Total cell quantity of S100+mOSNs and crypt cells. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). No significant difference in total number of mOSNs and crypt cells was found (mOSNs Mann-Whitney U: 104.5, p = 0.109, Mdnimpr = 182.5, Mdnnon impr = 117; crypt cells U: 149, p = 0.894, Mdnimpr = 9, Mdnnon impr = 7, nimpr = 18, nnon impr = 17). (b) S100+/pERK+mOSNs shown as percentage of all S100 + mOSNs per larva. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: *p < 0.05, *p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (also applies to (c) S100+mOSNs show no difference in activation between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae after kin stimulation. Number of activated mOSNs is significantly higher in imprinted larvae versus non-imprinted control larvae (Mann-Whitney U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 3.25, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 11, nnon impr = 7). (c) S100+/pERK+crypt cells shown as percentage of all S100 + crypt cells per larva. S100 + crypt cells show no difference in activation between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae after kin stimulation U: 15, p = 0.035 [Bonferroni correction], Mdnimpr = 30, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 7, nnon impr = 10). A significant difference between imprinted and non-imprinted control larvae exists (U < 0.001, p < 0.001, Mdnimpr = 35, Mdnnon impr = 0, nimpr = 11, nnon impr = 7). (d) The total numbers of pERK activated, but S100 negative cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells are shown. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). *indicates statistical significance p: **p < 0.01. No difference in cell activation was found in either cOSNs (Kruskall-Wallis H(2) = 1.729, p = 0.630) or mOSNs (H(2) = 1.901, p = 0.593) (nimpri kin = 7, nimpr ctr = 11, nnon impr kin = 10, nnon impr ctr  = 7).
Mentions: First, we were interested if there was a quantitative difference of S100 + mOSNs and crypt cells between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (Fig. 5a). When plotting all detected S100 + mOSNs and crypt cells independent of pERK immunopositivity, no significant difference between imprinted and non-imprinted larvae was observed. Imprinted as well as non-imprinted larvae show nearly the same amount of S100 + mOSNs or crypt cells. Therefore, we can exclude that preventing olfactory imprinting in zebrafish larvae has an effect on total OSN cell number (i.e. S100 + mOSN and crypt cell) development within the olfactory epithelium.

Bottom Line: Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life.Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection.We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences &Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Grosshadernerstr. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried Germany.

ABSTRACT
Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus