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Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish.

Biechl D, Tietje K, Gerlach G, Wullimann MF - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life.Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection.We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences &Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Grosshadernerstr. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried Germany.

ABSTRACT
Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of exposure duration of different stimuli on activity of cOSNs, mOSNs and crypt cells.9 day old zebrafish larvae were exposed to either food odor, non-kin larvae odor or E3 medium as control (ctr) for either 3, 7, 11, or 15 minutes (min). The total number of pERK+activated cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells was counted per larva and statistically analyzed. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). (a) Stimulus duration does not affect number of pERK + cOSNs in larvae stimulated with food odor (Kruskall-Wallis test: H(2) = 0.794, p = 0.851, n3,7,11 min = 5, n15 min = 3), larvae odor (H(2) = 3.030, p = 0.387, n3,15 min = 5, n7,11 min = 4), or in controls (H(2) = 2.866, p = 0.413, n3,7,11,15 min = 5). (b) Number of pERK + mOSNs does not alter at different stimulus durations when stimulated with food odor (H(2) = 1.714, p = 0.634), larvae odor (H(2) = 0.964, p = 0.810), or in controls (H(2) = 4.779, p = 0.189). For n values: see (a). (c) No significant difference in number of pERK+ crypt cells at different stimulus durations when stimulated with food odor (H(2) = 2.488, p = 0.478), larvae odor (H(2) = 6.685, p = 0.083), or in controls (H(2) = 6.316, p = 0.097). For n values: see (a).
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f2: Effect of exposure duration of different stimuli on activity of cOSNs, mOSNs and crypt cells.9 day old zebrafish larvae were exposed to either food odor, non-kin larvae odor or E3 medium as control (ctr) for either 3, 7, 11, or 15 minutes (min). The total number of pERK+activated cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells was counted per larva and statistically analyzed. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). (a) Stimulus duration does not affect number of pERK + cOSNs in larvae stimulated with food odor (Kruskall-Wallis test: H(2) = 0.794, p = 0.851, n3,7,11 min = 5, n15 min = 3), larvae odor (H(2) = 3.030, p = 0.387, n3,15 min = 5, n7,11 min = 4), or in controls (H(2) = 2.866, p = 0.413, n3,7,11,15 min = 5). (b) Number of pERK + mOSNs does not alter at different stimulus durations when stimulated with food odor (H(2) = 1.714, p = 0.634), larvae odor (H(2) = 0.964, p = 0.810), or in controls (H(2) = 4.779, p = 0.189). For n values: see (a). (c) No significant difference in number of pERK+ crypt cells at different stimulus durations when stimulated with food odor (H(2) = 2.488, p = 0.478), larvae odor (H(2) = 6.685, p = 0.083), or in controls (H(2) = 6.316, p = 0.097). For n values: see (a).

Mentions: Intensity of pERK labeled OSNs does not seem to depend on stimulus duration. Equally strongly pERK upregulated OSNs were observed with all four stimulus durations using two odor stimuli and control stimulation (Fig. 2a–c). However, we observed the best signal to noise ratio at stimulus durations of 7 minutes (data not shown). In addition, the duration of stimulation did not show an effect on the number of activated OSN types, because within each OSN type, no significant differences were observed between the four stimulation durations for all three stimuli (Fig. 2a–c).


Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish.

Biechl D, Tietje K, Gerlach G, Wullimann MF - Sci Rep (2016)

Effect of exposure duration of different stimuli on activity of cOSNs, mOSNs and crypt cells.9 day old zebrafish larvae were exposed to either food odor, non-kin larvae odor or E3 medium as control (ctr) for either 3, 7, 11, or 15 minutes (min). The total number of pERK+activated cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells was counted per larva and statistically analyzed. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). (a) Stimulus duration does not affect number of pERK + cOSNs in larvae stimulated with food odor (Kruskall-Wallis test: H(2) = 0.794, p = 0.851, n3,7,11 min = 5, n15 min = 3), larvae odor (H(2) = 3.030, p = 0.387, n3,15 min = 5, n7,11 min = 4), or in controls (H(2) = 2.866, p = 0.413, n3,7,11,15 min = 5). (b) Number of pERK + mOSNs does not alter at different stimulus durations when stimulated with food odor (H(2) = 1.714, p = 0.634), larvae odor (H(2) = 0.964, p = 0.810), or in controls (H(2) = 4.779, p = 0.189). For n values: see (a). (c) No significant difference in number of pERK+ crypt cells at different stimulus durations when stimulated with food odor (H(2) = 2.488, p = 0.478), larvae odor (H(2) = 6.685, p = 0.083), or in controls (H(2) = 6.316, p = 0.097). For n values: see (a).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834543&req=5

f2: Effect of exposure duration of different stimuli on activity of cOSNs, mOSNs and crypt cells.9 day old zebrafish larvae were exposed to either food odor, non-kin larvae odor or E3 medium as control (ctr) for either 3, 7, 11, or 15 minutes (min). The total number of pERK+activated cOSNs, mOSNs, and crypt cells was counted per larva and statistically analyzed. Box plots show median, upper and lower quartile and whiskers (maximum interquartile range: 1.5). (a) Stimulus duration does not affect number of pERK + cOSNs in larvae stimulated with food odor (Kruskall-Wallis test: H(2) = 0.794, p = 0.851, n3,7,11 min = 5, n15 min = 3), larvae odor (H(2) = 3.030, p = 0.387, n3,15 min = 5, n7,11 min = 4), or in controls (H(2) = 2.866, p = 0.413, n3,7,11,15 min = 5). (b) Number of pERK + mOSNs does not alter at different stimulus durations when stimulated with food odor (H(2) = 1.714, p = 0.634), larvae odor (H(2) = 0.964, p = 0.810), or in controls (H(2) = 4.779, p = 0.189). For n values: see (a). (c) No significant difference in number of pERK+ crypt cells at different stimulus durations when stimulated with food odor (H(2) = 2.488, p = 0.478), larvae odor (H(2) = 6.685, p = 0.083), or in controls (H(2) = 6.316, p = 0.097). For n values: see (a).
Mentions: Intensity of pERK labeled OSNs does not seem to depend on stimulus duration. Equally strongly pERK upregulated OSNs were observed with all four stimulus durations using two odor stimuli and control stimulation (Fig. 2a–c). However, we observed the best signal to noise ratio at stimulus durations of 7 minutes (data not shown). In addition, the duration of stimulation did not show an effect on the number of activated OSN types, because within each OSN type, no significant differences were observed between the four stimulation durations for all three stimuli (Fig. 2a–c).

Bottom Line: Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life.Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection.We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences &Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Grosshadernerstr. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried Germany.

ABSTRACT
Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus