Limits...
Promoting Motor Cortical Plasticity with Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Role for Cerebellar Circuits.

Mang CS, Brown KE, Neva JL, Snow NJ, Campbell KL, Boyd LA - Neural Plast. (2016)

Bottom Line: Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years).In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation.Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3.

ABSTRACT
Acute aerobic exercise facilitated long-term potentiation-like plasticity in the human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years). In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. In Experiment   2, we evaluated the facilitatory effects of aerobic exercise on responses to paired associative stimulation, delivered with a 25 ms (PAS25) or 21 ms (PAS21) interstimulus interval (n = 16 per group). Increased M1 excitability evoked by PAS25, but not PAS21, relies on trans-cerebellar sensory pathways. The magnitude of the aerobic exercise effect on PAS response was not significantly different between PAS protocols (interaction effect: p = 0.30); however, planned comparisons indicated that, relative to a period of rest, acute aerobic exercise enhanced the excitatory response to PAS25 (p = 0.02), but not PAS21 (p = 0.30). Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity. The findings have implications for developing aerobic exercise strategies to "prime" M1 plasticity for enhanced motor skill learning in applied settings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

MEP recruitment curve data before and after PAS under rest (a and c) and aerobic exercise conditions (b and d) for each participant in both the PAS25 (a and b) and PAS21 (c and d) groups. Unfilled circles and filled squares depict MEP amplitude at each stimulator intensity for each participant at pre- and post-PAS time points, respectively. Likewise, dashed and solid lines depict linear regression lines showing average recruitment curve slope for the group at pre- and post-PAS time points, respectively. MEP: motor evoked potential; Mmax: maximal motor-wave; PAS25: paired associative stimulation with 25 ms interstimulus interval; PAS21: paired associative stimulation with 21 ms interstimulus interval; TMS: transcranial magnetic stimulation; RMT: resting motor threshold.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834415&req=5

fig4: MEP recruitment curve data before and after PAS under rest (a and c) and aerobic exercise conditions (b and d) for each participant in both the PAS25 (a and b) and PAS21 (c and d) groups. Unfilled circles and filled squares depict MEP amplitude at each stimulator intensity for each participant at pre- and post-PAS time points, respectively. Likewise, dashed and solid lines depict linear regression lines showing average recruitment curve slope for the group at pre- and post-PAS time points, respectively. MEP: motor evoked potential; Mmax: maximal motor-wave; PAS25: paired associative stimulation with 25 ms interstimulus interval; PAS21: paired associative stimulation with 21 ms interstimulus interval; TMS: transcranial magnetic stimulation; RMT: resting motor threshold.

Mentions: Figure 4 shows the data points comprising pre-PAS and post-PAS MEP recruitment curve plots for each participant from both the PAS25 and PAS21 groups under each condition. The group average linear regression lines for the MEP recruitment curve plots, depicting the slope across the study sample at pre-PAS and post-PAS time points under each condition and in each PAS group, are also depicted in Figure 4. The mixed ANOVA detected a significant main effect of condition on change in recruitment curve slope evoked by PAS (F(1,30) = 6.49, p = 0.02), a trend for an effect of PAS group (F(1,30) = 3.75, p = 0.06), and no interaction effect (F(1,30) = 1.10, p = 0.30). The hypothesis that the magnitude of the acute aerobic exercise effect on PAS response would differ between PAS25 and PAS21 protocols was tested by planned comparisons. MEP recruitment curve slope was increased to a greater extent by PAS25 under the aerobic exercise condition (59.8  ±  73.5% increase) compared to the rest condition (14.2 ± 32.7% increase; F(1,30) = 6.47, p = 0.02), but there was no significant difference between conditions in the magnitude of change evoked by PAS21 (rest: 3.7 ± 36.3%, aerobic exercise: 22.7 ± 46.7%; F(1,30) = 1.12, p = 0.30) (Figure 5). Further, effect size calculations indicated that aerobic exercise had a large facilitatory effect on response to PAS25 (ηpartial2 = 0.27) and a small-moderate facilitatory effect on response to PAS21 (ηpartial2 = 0.09).


Promoting Motor Cortical Plasticity with Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Role for Cerebellar Circuits.

Mang CS, Brown KE, Neva JL, Snow NJ, Campbell KL, Boyd LA - Neural Plast. (2016)

MEP recruitment curve data before and after PAS under rest (a and c) and aerobic exercise conditions (b and d) for each participant in both the PAS25 (a and b) and PAS21 (c and d) groups. Unfilled circles and filled squares depict MEP amplitude at each stimulator intensity for each participant at pre- and post-PAS time points, respectively. Likewise, dashed and solid lines depict linear regression lines showing average recruitment curve slope for the group at pre- and post-PAS time points, respectively. MEP: motor evoked potential; Mmax: maximal motor-wave; PAS25: paired associative stimulation with 25 ms interstimulus interval; PAS21: paired associative stimulation with 21 ms interstimulus interval; TMS: transcranial magnetic stimulation; RMT: resting motor threshold.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834415&req=5

fig4: MEP recruitment curve data before and after PAS under rest (a and c) and aerobic exercise conditions (b and d) for each participant in both the PAS25 (a and b) and PAS21 (c and d) groups. Unfilled circles and filled squares depict MEP amplitude at each stimulator intensity for each participant at pre- and post-PAS time points, respectively. Likewise, dashed and solid lines depict linear regression lines showing average recruitment curve slope for the group at pre- and post-PAS time points, respectively. MEP: motor evoked potential; Mmax: maximal motor-wave; PAS25: paired associative stimulation with 25 ms interstimulus interval; PAS21: paired associative stimulation with 21 ms interstimulus interval; TMS: transcranial magnetic stimulation; RMT: resting motor threshold.
Mentions: Figure 4 shows the data points comprising pre-PAS and post-PAS MEP recruitment curve plots for each participant from both the PAS25 and PAS21 groups under each condition. The group average linear regression lines for the MEP recruitment curve plots, depicting the slope across the study sample at pre-PAS and post-PAS time points under each condition and in each PAS group, are also depicted in Figure 4. The mixed ANOVA detected a significant main effect of condition on change in recruitment curve slope evoked by PAS (F(1,30) = 6.49, p = 0.02), a trend for an effect of PAS group (F(1,30) = 3.75, p = 0.06), and no interaction effect (F(1,30) = 1.10, p = 0.30). The hypothesis that the magnitude of the acute aerobic exercise effect on PAS response would differ between PAS25 and PAS21 protocols was tested by planned comparisons. MEP recruitment curve slope was increased to a greater extent by PAS25 under the aerobic exercise condition (59.8  ±  73.5% increase) compared to the rest condition (14.2 ± 32.7% increase; F(1,30) = 6.47, p = 0.02), but there was no significant difference between conditions in the magnitude of change evoked by PAS21 (rest: 3.7 ± 36.3%, aerobic exercise: 22.7 ± 46.7%; F(1,30) = 1.12, p = 0.30) (Figure 5). Further, effect size calculations indicated that aerobic exercise had a large facilitatory effect on response to PAS25 (ηpartial2 = 0.27) and a small-moderate facilitatory effect on response to PAS21 (ηpartial2 = 0.09).

Bottom Line: Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years).In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation.Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3.

ABSTRACT
Acute aerobic exercise facilitated long-term potentiation-like plasticity in the human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years). In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. In Experiment   2, we evaluated the facilitatory effects of aerobic exercise on responses to paired associative stimulation, delivered with a 25 ms (PAS25) or 21 ms (PAS21) interstimulus interval (n = 16 per group). Increased M1 excitability evoked by PAS25, but not PAS21, relies on trans-cerebellar sensory pathways. The magnitude of the aerobic exercise effect on PAS response was not significantly different between PAS protocols (interaction effect: p = 0.30); however, planned comparisons indicated that, relative to a period of rest, acute aerobic exercise enhanced the excitatory response to PAS25 (p = 0.02), but not PAS21 (p = 0.30). Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity. The findings have implications for developing aerobic exercise strategies to "prime" M1 plasticity for enhanced motor skill learning in applied settings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus