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The role of ultrasound and lymphoscintigraphy in the assessment of axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer.

Nieciecki M, Dobruch-Sobczak K, Wareluk P, Gumińska A, Białek E, Cacko M, Królicki L - J Ultrason (2016)

Bottom Line: The importance of ultrasound in patient qualification for sentinel lymph-node biopsy has been discussed in a number of works.Furthermore, different lymphoscintigraphy protocols have been compared in the literature.Abstract available from the publisher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Mazovian Bródno Hospital, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of death due to cancer in European women. Mammography screening programs aimed to increase the detection of early cancer stages were implemented in numerous European countries. Recent data show a decrease in mortality due to breast cancer in many countries, particularly among young women. At the same time, the number of sentinel node biopsy procedures and breast-conserving surgeries has increased. Intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy preceded by lymphoscintigraphy is used in breast cancer patients with no clinical signs of lymph node metastasis. Due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of physical examination in detecting metastatic lesions, developing an appropriate diagnostic algorithm for the preoperative assessment of axillary lymph nodes seems to be a challenge. The importance of ultrasound in patient qualification for sentinel lymph-node biopsy has been discussed in a number of works. Furthermore, different lymphoscintigraphy protocols have been compared in the literature. The usefulness of novel radiopharmaceuticals as well as the methods of image acquisition in sentinel lymph node diagnostics have also been assessed. The aim of this article is to present, basing on current guidelines, literature data as well as our own experience, the diagnostic possibilities of axillary lymph node ultrasound in patient qualification for an appropriate treatment as well as the role of lymphoscintigraphy in sentinel lymph node biopsy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Three anatomical levels of axillary lymph nodes: level I (blue) – lymph nodes located below and laterally from the lateral edge of the pectoralis minor; level II (yellow) – lymph nodes located behind the pectoralis minor; level III (pink) – lymph nodes located upward and medially to the medial edge of the pectoralis minor
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Figure 0001: Three anatomical levels of axillary lymph nodes: level I (blue) – lymph nodes located below and laterally from the lateral edge of the pectoralis minor; level II (yellow) – lymph nodes located behind the pectoralis minor; level III (pink) – lymph nodes located upward and medially to the medial edge of the pectoralis minor

Mentions: There are about 20–30 axillary lymph nodes in each armpit, and they are located in one of three anatomical levels. Level I is represented by lymph nodes located below and laterally to the lateral edge of the pectoralis minor muscle. Level II lymph nodes are located behind the pectoralis minor (Rotter nodes are also located at this level, between the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor). Level III is formed by lymph nodes located upward and medially to the medial edge of the pectoralis minor. The lymph from medial quadrants of the breast as well as the chest wall, the upper abdomen and upper extremities drains into the axillary lymph nodes (Fig. 1). The lymph reaches the lymph node via the afferent lymphatic vessels, it flows through marginal, cortical and medullary sinuses and leaves it via the efferent lymphatic vessels in its hilus (11) (Fig. 2).


The role of ultrasound and lymphoscintigraphy in the assessment of axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer.

Nieciecki M, Dobruch-Sobczak K, Wareluk P, Gumińska A, Białek E, Cacko M, Królicki L - J Ultrason (2016)

Three anatomical levels of axillary lymph nodes: level I (blue) – lymph nodes located below and laterally from the lateral edge of the pectoralis minor; level II (yellow) – lymph nodes located behind the pectoralis minor; level III (pink) – lymph nodes located upward and medially to the medial edge of the pectoralis minor
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834366&req=5

Figure 0001: Three anatomical levels of axillary lymph nodes: level I (blue) – lymph nodes located below and laterally from the lateral edge of the pectoralis minor; level II (yellow) – lymph nodes located behind the pectoralis minor; level III (pink) – lymph nodes located upward and medially to the medial edge of the pectoralis minor
Mentions: There are about 20–30 axillary lymph nodes in each armpit, and they are located in one of three anatomical levels. Level I is represented by lymph nodes located below and laterally to the lateral edge of the pectoralis minor muscle. Level II lymph nodes are located behind the pectoralis minor (Rotter nodes are also located at this level, between the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor). Level III is formed by lymph nodes located upward and medially to the medial edge of the pectoralis minor. The lymph from medial quadrants of the breast as well as the chest wall, the upper abdomen and upper extremities drains into the axillary lymph nodes (Fig. 1). The lymph reaches the lymph node via the afferent lymphatic vessels, it flows through marginal, cortical and medullary sinuses and leaves it via the efferent lymphatic vessels in its hilus (11) (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: The importance of ultrasound in patient qualification for sentinel lymph-node biopsy has been discussed in a number of works.Furthermore, different lymphoscintigraphy protocols have been compared in the literature.Abstract available from the publisher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Mazovian Bródno Hospital, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of death due to cancer in European women. Mammography screening programs aimed to increase the detection of early cancer stages were implemented in numerous European countries. Recent data show a decrease in mortality due to breast cancer in many countries, particularly among young women. At the same time, the number of sentinel node biopsy procedures and breast-conserving surgeries has increased. Intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy preceded by lymphoscintigraphy is used in breast cancer patients with no clinical signs of lymph node metastasis. Due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of physical examination in detecting metastatic lesions, developing an appropriate diagnostic algorithm for the preoperative assessment of axillary lymph nodes seems to be a challenge. The importance of ultrasound in patient qualification for sentinel lymph-node biopsy has been discussed in a number of works. Furthermore, different lymphoscintigraphy protocols have been compared in the literature. The usefulness of novel radiopharmaceuticals as well as the methods of image acquisition in sentinel lymph node diagnostics have also been assessed. The aim of this article is to present, basing on current guidelines, literature data as well as our own experience, the diagnostic possibilities of axillary lymph node ultrasound in patient qualification for an appropriate treatment as well as the role of lymphoscintigraphy in sentinel lymph node biopsy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus