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Epitheliocystis Distribution and Characterization in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) from the Headwaters of Two Major European Rivers, the Rhine and Rhone.

Guevara Soto M, Vaughan L, Segner H, Wahli T, Vidondo B, Schmidt-Posthaus H - Front Physiol (2016)

Bottom Line: Additionally, in two rivers in the Rhine catchment, a new species of Candidatus Similichlamydia was identified.Based on the histology, infection intensity, and severity of pathological changes were significantly more pronounced in mixed chlamydial infections, whereas single infections showed only low numbers of cysts and mild pathology.Infections could be found over a wide range of temperatures, which showed no correlation to infection prevalence or intensity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Centre of Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern Bern, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
We present a first description of the distribution and characterization of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the upper catchments of two major European rivers, the Rhine and the Rhone. Overall, epitheliocystis was widely distributed, with 70% of the Rhine and 67% of the Rhone sites harboring epitheliocystis positive brown trout. The epitheliocystis agents Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Candidatus Clavichlamydia salmonicola could be identified in both catchments, although their relative proportions differed from site to site. Additionally, in two rivers in the Rhine catchment, a new species of Candidatus Similichlamydia was identified. Based on the histology, infection intensity, and severity of pathological changes were significantly more pronounced in mixed chlamydial infections, whereas single infections showed only low numbers of cysts and mild pathology. Infections could be found over a wide range of temperatures, which showed no correlation to infection prevalence or intensity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Box Plot of the prevalence (%) of EP in Rhine and Rhone catchments. There is a higher probability of finding infected animals in the Rhine catchment compared to the Rhone catchment (Two-level Logistic Regression model, p < 0.000000). (B) Prevalence of infected animals in tributaries (Aare, Limmat, and Rhine belonging to the Rhine catchment; Rhone belonging to the Rhone catchment).
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Figure 2: (A) Box Plot of the prevalence (%) of EP in Rhine and Rhone catchments. There is a higher probability of finding infected animals in the Rhine catchment compared to the Rhone catchment (Two-level Logistic Regression model, p < 0.000000). (B) Prevalence of infected animals in tributaries (Aare, Limmat, and Rhine belonging to the Rhine catchment; Rhone belonging to the Rhone catchment).

Mentions: To evaluate prevalence and intensity data, a subset of sampling sites (n = 45) (total of 987 investigated animals) was used (inclusion criteria are described in Sections Materials and Methods, Statistical Analysis). Based on these data, 29 rivers (80%) of the Rhine catchment revealed to be positive for EP, while in the Rhone catchment 5 rivers (55.6%) showed brown trout with bacterial cysts in the gills. There is a higher probability of finding infected animals in the Rhine catchment compared to the Rhone catchment (Logistic Regression model, P = 0.00506). The comparison of the different river systems rendered only two effects, with evidence of higher infection risk in the Rhine (P = 0.00195), followed by the Aare (P = 0.00400). The Limmat showed no increased risk compared to the Rhone (P = 0.13602). Within the positive sites, the prevalence of infected animals per sampling site varied from 4 to 60%, with most sites showing prevalences of < 30% (Figures 2A,B, Table 1).


Epitheliocystis Distribution and Characterization in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) from the Headwaters of Two Major European Rivers, the Rhine and Rhone.

Guevara Soto M, Vaughan L, Segner H, Wahli T, Vidondo B, Schmidt-Posthaus H - Front Physiol (2016)

(A) Box Plot of the prevalence (%) of EP in Rhine and Rhone catchments. There is a higher probability of finding infected animals in the Rhine catchment compared to the Rhone catchment (Two-level Logistic Regression model, p < 0.000000). (B) Prevalence of infected animals in tributaries (Aare, Limmat, and Rhine belonging to the Rhine catchment; Rhone belonging to the Rhone catchment).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834352&req=5

Figure 2: (A) Box Plot of the prevalence (%) of EP in Rhine and Rhone catchments. There is a higher probability of finding infected animals in the Rhine catchment compared to the Rhone catchment (Two-level Logistic Regression model, p < 0.000000). (B) Prevalence of infected animals in tributaries (Aare, Limmat, and Rhine belonging to the Rhine catchment; Rhone belonging to the Rhone catchment).
Mentions: To evaluate prevalence and intensity data, a subset of sampling sites (n = 45) (total of 987 investigated animals) was used (inclusion criteria are described in Sections Materials and Methods, Statistical Analysis). Based on these data, 29 rivers (80%) of the Rhine catchment revealed to be positive for EP, while in the Rhone catchment 5 rivers (55.6%) showed brown trout with bacterial cysts in the gills. There is a higher probability of finding infected animals in the Rhine catchment compared to the Rhone catchment (Logistic Regression model, P = 0.00506). The comparison of the different river systems rendered only two effects, with evidence of higher infection risk in the Rhine (P = 0.00195), followed by the Aare (P = 0.00400). The Limmat showed no increased risk compared to the Rhone (P = 0.13602). Within the positive sites, the prevalence of infected animals per sampling site varied from 4 to 60%, with most sites showing prevalences of < 30% (Figures 2A,B, Table 1).

Bottom Line: Additionally, in two rivers in the Rhine catchment, a new species of Candidatus Similichlamydia was identified.Based on the histology, infection intensity, and severity of pathological changes were significantly more pronounced in mixed chlamydial infections, whereas single infections showed only low numbers of cysts and mild pathology.Infections could be found over a wide range of temperatures, which showed no correlation to infection prevalence or intensity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Centre of Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern Bern, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
We present a first description of the distribution and characterization of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the upper catchments of two major European rivers, the Rhine and the Rhone. Overall, epitheliocystis was widely distributed, with 70% of the Rhine and 67% of the Rhone sites harboring epitheliocystis positive brown trout. The epitheliocystis agents Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Candidatus Clavichlamydia salmonicola could be identified in both catchments, although their relative proportions differed from site to site. Additionally, in two rivers in the Rhine catchment, a new species of Candidatus Similichlamydia was identified. Based on the histology, infection intensity, and severity of pathological changes were significantly more pronounced in mixed chlamydial infections, whereas single infections showed only low numbers of cysts and mild pathology. Infections could be found over a wide range of temperatures, which showed no correlation to infection prevalence or intensity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus