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Native-Invasive Plants vs. Halophytes in Mediterranean Salt Marshes: Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Two Related Species.

Al Hassan M, Chaura J, López-Gresa MP, Borsai O, Daniso E, Donat-Torres MP, Mayoral O, Vicente O, Boscaiu M - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature.Oxidative stress level-estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation-was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides.Based on these results, we concluded that although D. viscosa cannot directly compete with true halophytes in highly saline environments, it is nevertheless quite stress tolerant and therefore represents a threat for the vegetation located on the salt marshes borders, where several endemic and threatened species are found in the area of study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, (UPV-CSIC), Universitat Politècnica de València Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in "La Albufera" Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain). The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves-where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles-and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na(+) and Cl(-) contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose) accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K(+) transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level-estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation-was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides. Based on these results, we concluded that although D. viscosa cannot directly compete with true halophytes in highly saline environments, it is nevertheless quite stress tolerant and therefore represents a threat for the vegetation located on the salt marshes borders, where several endemic and threatened species are found in the area of study.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Proline (Pro) accumulation in leaves of D. viscosa and I. crithmoides stressed plants. Pro contents after 3 weeks (A) and 6 weeks (B) of treatment with the indicated NaCl concentrations, or after 3 weeks of water stress (C). Values shown are means ± SD (n = 5). Different letters (lowercase for D. viscosa and capital letters for I. crithmoides) over the bars indicate significant differences between treatments for each species according to Tukey test (α = 0.05). Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences between the two species for the same treatment.
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Figure 5: Proline (Pro) accumulation in leaves of D. viscosa and I. crithmoides stressed plants. Pro contents after 3 weeks (A) and 6 weeks (B) of treatment with the indicated NaCl concentrations, or after 3 weeks of water stress (C). Values shown are means ± SD (n = 5). Different letters (lowercase for D. viscosa and capital letters for I. crithmoides) over the bars indicate significant differences between treatments for each species according to Tukey test (α = 0.05). Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences between the two species for the same treatment.

Mentions: Proline (Pro) was also measured in D. viscosa and I. crithmoides plants subjected to salt and water stress treatments (Figure 5). Pro levels augmented in both species upon treatment with NaCl, in a concentration-dependent manner. After 3 weeks in the presence of salt, Pro accumulation was relatively stronger in D. viscosa, reaching more than a 20-fold increase over control levels in the plants watered with 600 mM NaCl, as compared to ca. 7-fold in I. crithmoides under the same conditions (Figure 5A); when the treatment was prolonged to 6 weeks, however, Inula plants appeared to further increase Pro accumulation, so that its concentration was similar in the two species (Figure 5B). Water stress also led to Pro accumulation in the leaves of D. viscosa (12-fold increase over control values) and I. crithmoides (4-fold increase) plants (Figure 5C). Yet, it should be mentioned that the absolute Pro concentrations reached, always below 40 μmol g−1 DW, were one order of magnitude lower than those of GB; therefore, Pro could have, at best, a modest contribution to osmotic adjustment in the stressed plants.


Native-Invasive Plants vs. Halophytes in Mediterranean Salt Marshes: Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Two Related Species.

Al Hassan M, Chaura J, López-Gresa MP, Borsai O, Daniso E, Donat-Torres MP, Mayoral O, Vicente O, Boscaiu M - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Proline (Pro) accumulation in leaves of D. viscosa and I. crithmoides stressed plants. Pro contents after 3 weeks (A) and 6 weeks (B) of treatment with the indicated NaCl concentrations, or after 3 weeks of water stress (C). Values shown are means ± SD (n = 5). Different letters (lowercase for D. viscosa and capital letters for I. crithmoides) over the bars indicate significant differences between treatments for each species according to Tukey test (α = 0.05). Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences between the two species for the same treatment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834351&req=5

Figure 5: Proline (Pro) accumulation in leaves of D. viscosa and I. crithmoides stressed plants. Pro contents after 3 weeks (A) and 6 weeks (B) of treatment with the indicated NaCl concentrations, or after 3 weeks of water stress (C). Values shown are means ± SD (n = 5). Different letters (lowercase for D. viscosa and capital letters for I. crithmoides) over the bars indicate significant differences between treatments for each species according to Tukey test (α = 0.05). Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences between the two species for the same treatment.
Mentions: Proline (Pro) was also measured in D. viscosa and I. crithmoides plants subjected to salt and water stress treatments (Figure 5). Pro levels augmented in both species upon treatment with NaCl, in a concentration-dependent manner. After 3 weeks in the presence of salt, Pro accumulation was relatively stronger in D. viscosa, reaching more than a 20-fold increase over control levels in the plants watered with 600 mM NaCl, as compared to ca. 7-fold in I. crithmoides under the same conditions (Figure 5A); when the treatment was prolonged to 6 weeks, however, Inula plants appeared to further increase Pro accumulation, so that its concentration was similar in the two species (Figure 5B). Water stress also led to Pro accumulation in the leaves of D. viscosa (12-fold increase over control values) and I. crithmoides (4-fold increase) plants (Figure 5C). Yet, it should be mentioned that the absolute Pro concentrations reached, always below 40 μmol g−1 DW, were one order of magnitude lower than those of GB; therefore, Pro could have, at best, a modest contribution to osmotic adjustment in the stressed plants.

Bottom Line: This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature.Oxidative stress level-estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation-was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides.Based on these results, we concluded that although D. viscosa cannot directly compete with true halophytes in highly saline environments, it is nevertheless quite stress tolerant and therefore represents a threat for the vegetation located on the salt marshes borders, where several endemic and threatened species are found in the area of study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, (UPV-CSIC), Universitat Politècnica de València Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in "La Albufera" Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain). The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves-where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles-and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na(+) and Cl(-) contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose) accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K(+) transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level-estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation-was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides. Based on these results, we concluded that although D. viscosa cannot directly compete with true halophytes in highly saline environments, it is nevertheless quite stress tolerant and therefore represents a threat for the vegetation located on the salt marshes borders, where several endemic and threatened species are found in the area of study.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus