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The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

Sosa S - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns.Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network.Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Formerly affiliated with Grupo de Conducta Adaptativa e Interacción, Psychology Faculty, University of Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Matrilines. This scheme represents individuals which were kept for kinship analysis. Gray cells are dead individuals. Numbers represent the different matrilines. Each subline represents an offspring of the corresponding mother.
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Figure 2: Matrilines. This scheme represents individuals which were kept for kinship analysis. Gray cells are dead individuals. Numbers represent the different matrilines. Each subline represents an offspring of the corresponding mother.

Mentions: Kinship bonds among individuals were determined using two methods. First, data were provided by the park officials who, along with scientists, have been monitoring the population in the park. Second, matrilines were determined through genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA using eight microsatellite markers. The collection and analysis of DNA samples were performed by the park authorities. The poor quality of DNA samples made some DNA results uncertain. For this reason, matriline groups were built only with individuals whose relatedness was confirmed based on direct observations and genetic analyses. To conserve only close kinship relationships, only the individuals with the same mother were considered related for each mitochondrial haplotype (Figure 2). Thus, individuals whose matrilines were uncertain did not belong to any matriline group (eight males and one female). In addition, matriline results must be carefully considered, as not all individuals were taken into account owing to a lack of information on their kinship bonds.


The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

Sosa S - Front Psychol (2016)

Matrilines. This scheme represents individuals which were kept for kinship analysis. Gray cells are dead individuals. Numbers represent the different matrilines. Each subline represents an offspring of the corresponding mother.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834345&req=5

Figure 2: Matrilines. This scheme represents individuals which were kept for kinship analysis. Gray cells are dead individuals. Numbers represent the different matrilines. Each subline represents an offspring of the corresponding mother.
Mentions: Kinship bonds among individuals were determined using two methods. First, data were provided by the park officials who, along with scientists, have been monitoring the population in the park. Second, matrilines were determined through genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA using eight microsatellite markers. The collection and analysis of DNA samples were performed by the park authorities. The poor quality of DNA samples made some DNA results uncertain. For this reason, matriline groups were built only with individuals whose relatedness was confirmed based on direct observations and genetic analyses. To conserve only close kinship relationships, only the individuals with the same mother were considered related for each mitochondrial haplotype (Figure 2). Thus, individuals whose matrilines were uncertain did not belong to any matriline group (eight males and one female). In addition, matriline results must be carefully considered, as not all individuals were taken into account owing to a lack of information on their kinship bonds.

Bottom Line: The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns.Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network.Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Formerly affiliated with Grupo de Conducta Adaptativa e Interacción, Psychology Faculty, University of Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus