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The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

Sosa S - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns.Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network.Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Formerly affiliated with Grupo de Conducta Adaptativa e Interacción, Psychology Faculty, University of Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Social networks: (A) agonistic network, (B) allogrooming network. Yifan Hu layout. Gradient color of vertices (from yellow to red) represents individuals’ age (from youngest to oldest). Shape of vertices represents individuals’ gender (females: triangles; males: circles). Size of vertices represents individuals’ degree. Size of edges represents the strength of interactions and the color is in accordance with the age of the individual that gives the behavior.
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Figure 1: Social networks: (A) agonistic network, (B) allogrooming network. Yifan Hu layout. Gradient color of vertices (from yellow to red) represents individuals’ age (from youngest to oldest). Shape of vertices represents individuals’ gender (females: triangles; males: circles). Size of vertices represents individuals’ degree. Size of edges represents the strength of interactions and the color is in accordance with the age of the individual that gives the behavior.

Mentions: Observations were conducted by repeated focal samplings of 30 min per individual. Each individual was observed approximately 30 times (15 ± 2 h), for 786 observation hours of 52 individuals. Focal sampling time was determined after 2 months of pre-observation. To trade with bias of observation in time of day and feeding time, individuals were observed randomly from 8 am to 5 pm over the 4 months. During the observations, I registered allogrooming and agonistic behaviors (threatening face or growl, charge, avoidance, attack, chase, and aggressive slap, grab, or bite). A complete description of the ethogram of M. sylvanus can be found in Hesler and Fischer (2007). An iPad 1 tablet (Inc, 1976) computer and the WhatISee2.0 application (Inc, 2009) were used to register the individuals involved, and the direction, frequency, and duration of the behaviors. Directed and weighted agonistic and allogrooming matrices were built using the obtained behavioral frequencies (Figure 1). The overall observation yields a total of 5867 agonistic interactions and 1281 grooming interactions. The agonistic matrices allow us to calculate the hierarchical rank of each individual using David’s Score (David, 1987) with R 3.0.1 (Ihaka and Gentleman, 1996) package steepness (de Vries et al., 2006).


The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

Sosa S - Front Psychol (2016)

Social networks: (A) agonistic network, (B) allogrooming network. Yifan Hu layout. Gradient color of vertices (from yellow to red) represents individuals’ age (from youngest to oldest). Shape of vertices represents individuals’ gender (females: triangles; males: circles). Size of vertices represents individuals’ degree. Size of edges represents the strength of interactions and the color is in accordance with the age of the individual that gives the behavior.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834345&req=5

Figure 1: Social networks: (A) agonistic network, (B) allogrooming network. Yifan Hu layout. Gradient color of vertices (from yellow to red) represents individuals’ age (from youngest to oldest). Shape of vertices represents individuals’ gender (females: triangles; males: circles). Size of vertices represents individuals’ degree. Size of edges represents the strength of interactions and the color is in accordance with the age of the individual that gives the behavior.
Mentions: Observations were conducted by repeated focal samplings of 30 min per individual. Each individual was observed approximately 30 times (15 ± 2 h), for 786 observation hours of 52 individuals. Focal sampling time was determined after 2 months of pre-observation. To trade with bias of observation in time of day and feeding time, individuals were observed randomly from 8 am to 5 pm over the 4 months. During the observations, I registered allogrooming and agonistic behaviors (threatening face or growl, charge, avoidance, attack, chase, and aggressive slap, grab, or bite). A complete description of the ethogram of M. sylvanus can be found in Hesler and Fischer (2007). An iPad 1 tablet (Inc, 1976) computer and the WhatISee2.0 application (Inc, 2009) were used to register the individuals involved, and the direction, frequency, and duration of the behaviors. Directed and weighted agonistic and allogrooming matrices were built using the obtained behavioral frequencies (Figure 1). The overall observation yields a total of 5867 agonistic interactions and 1281 grooming interactions. The agonistic matrices allow us to calculate the hierarchical rank of each individual using David’s Score (David, 1987) with R 3.0.1 (Ihaka and Gentleman, 1996) package steepness (de Vries et al., 2006).

Bottom Line: The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns.Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network.Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Formerly affiliated with Grupo de Conducta Adaptativa e Interacción, Psychology Faculty, University of Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus