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Twelve years of repeated wild hog activity promotes population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant in a coastal dune ecosystem.

Oldfield CA, Evans JP - Ecol Evol (2016)

Bottom Line: Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period.We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots.Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology The University of the South Sewanee Tennessee 37383.

ABSTRACT
Invasive animals can facilitate the success of invasive plant populations through disturbance. We examined the relationship between the repeated foraging disturbance of an invasive animal and the population maintenance of an invasive plant in a coastal dune ecosystem. We hypothesized that feral wild hog (Sus scrofa) populations repeatedly utilized tubers of the clonal perennial, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) as a food source and evaluated whether hog activity promoted the long-term maintenance of yellow nutsedge populations on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, United States. Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period. We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots. Wild hogs redisturbed the disturbed plots approximately every 5 years. Our research provides demographic evidence that repeated foraging disturbances by an invasive animal promote the long-term population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant. Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world.

No MeSH data available.


Data showing yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) culm density at McQueen's Inlet comparing disturbed to undisturbed plots. Categories are defined as follows: 0–2, 3–8, and ›8 culms per 0.1 m2. Over the course of the 13‐year period, disturbed plots experienced hog activity on three separate occasions as indicated by arrows.
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ece32045-fig-0003: Data showing yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) culm density at McQueen's Inlet comparing disturbed to undisturbed plots. Categories are defined as follows: 0–2, 3–8, and ›8 culms per 0.1 m2. Over the course of the 13‐year period, disturbed plots experienced hog activity on three separate occasions as indicated by arrows.

Mentions: Disturbance areas at McQueen's Inlet and North Beach were observed each year from 1997 to 2009, revealing a pattern of regular wild hog disturbance events. Wild hogs disturbed sites in 1997, 2003, and 2008, roughly every 5 years. The exact timing of the disturbance events between yearly samples is not known. Annual trends of culm density repeatedly showed a decrease in yellow nutsedge culms preceding a disturbance event and an increase following disturbance. Yellow nutsedge culm density in undisturbed plots was consistently in the 0‐2 culms per 0.1 m2 category, whereas yellow nutsedge culm density in disturbed plots fluctuated between having 0‐2 to over 8 culms per 0.1 m2 depending on the timing of the last disturbance (Fig. 3).


Twelve years of repeated wild hog activity promotes population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant in a coastal dune ecosystem.

Oldfield CA, Evans JP - Ecol Evol (2016)

Data showing yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) culm density at McQueen's Inlet comparing disturbed to undisturbed plots. Categories are defined as follows: 0–2, 3–8, and ›8 culms per 0.1 m2. Over the course of the 13‐year period, disturbed plots experienced hog activity on three separate occasions as indicated by arrows.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834338&req=5

ece32045-fig-0003: Data showing yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) culm density at McQueen's Inlet comparing disturbed to undisturbed plots. Categories are defined as follows: 0–2, 3–8, and ›8 culms per 0.1 m2. Over the course of the 13‐year period, disturbed plots experienced hog activity on three separate occasions as indicated by arrows.
Mentions: Disturbance areas at McQueen's Inlet and North Beach were observed each year from 1997 to 2009, revealing a pattern of regular wild hog disturbance events. Wild hogs disturbed sites in 1997, 2003, and 2008, roughly every 5 years. The exact timing of the disturbance events between yearly samples is not known. Annual trends of culm density repeatedly showed a decrease in yellow nutsedge culms preceding a disturbance event and an increase following disturbance. Yellow nutsedge culm density in undisturbed plots was consistently in the 0‐2 culms per 0.1 m2 category, whereas yellow nutsedge culm density in disturbed plots fluctuated between having 0‐2 to over 8 culms per 0.1 m2 depending on the timing of the last disturbance (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period.We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots.Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology The University of the South Sewanee Tennessee 37383.

ABSTRACT
Invasive animals can facilitate the success of invasive plant populations through disturbance. We examined the relationship between the repeated foraging disturbance of an invasive animal and the population maintenance of an invasive plant in a coastal dune ecosystem. We hypothesized that feral wild hog (Sus scrofa) populations repeatedly utilized tubers of the clonal perennial, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) as a food source and evaluated whether hog activity promoted the long-term maintenance of yellow nutsedge populations on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, United States. Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period. We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots. Wild hogs redisturbed the disturbed plots approximately every 5 years. Our research provides demographic evidence that repeated foraging disturbances by an invasive animal promote the long-term population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant. Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world.

No MeSH data available.