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An Eye in the Palm of Your Hand: Alterations in Visual Processing Near the Hand, a Mini-Review.

Perry CJ, Amarasooriya P, Fallah M - Front Comput Neurosci (2016)

Bottom Line: We do not just view the world around us however, we also reach out and grab things with our hands.Since the oculomotor system effects on visual processing occur through feedback, both through the motor plan and the motor efference copy, a parallel system where reaching and/or grasping motor-related activity also affects visual processing is likely.Finally, we summarize the two effector-based feedback systems and discuss how having separate but parallel effector systems allows for efficient decoupling of eye and hand movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Visual Perception and Attention Laboratory, York UniversityToronto, ON, Canada; Centre for Vision Research, York UniversityToronto, ON, Canada; School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York UniversityToronto, ON, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Feedback within the oculomotor system improves visual processing at eye movement end points, also termed a visual grasp. We do not just view the world around us however, we also reach out and grab things with our hands. A growing body of literature suggests that visual processing in near-hand space is altered. The control systems for moving either the eyes or the hands rely on parallel networks of fronto-parietal regions, which have feedback connections to visual areas. Since the oculomotor system effects on visual processing occur through feedback, both through the motor plan and the motor efference copy, a parallel system where reaching and/or grasping motor-related activity also affects visual processing is likely. Areas in the posterior parietal cortex, for example, receive proprioceptive and visual information used to guide actions, as well as motor efference signals. This trio of information channels is all that would be necessary to produce spatial allocation of reach-related visual attention. We review evidence from behavioral and neurophysiological studies that support the hypothesis that feedback from the reaching and/or grasping motor control networks affects visual processing while noting ways in which it differs from that seen within the oculomotor system. We also suggest that object affordances may represent the neural mechanism through which certain object features are selected for preferential processing when stimuli are near the hand. Finally, we summarize the two effector-based feedback systems and discuss how having separate but parallel effector systems allows for efficient decoupling of eye and hand movements.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reach, grasp, and oculomotor control brain regions in the macaque. Shown are the cortical brain regions associated with the reach (in red), grasp (in blue), oculomotor (in green), and visual (in black) systems. Not pictured are anatomical cross-talk connections between the reaching and grasping networks (i.e., between V6A and anterior intraparietal (AIP)/Ventral premotor cortex (PMv), see Fattori et al., 2015).
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Figure 1: Reach, grasp, and oculomotor control brain regions in the macaque. Shown are the cortical brain regions associated with the reach (in red), grasp (in blue), oculomotor (in green), and visual (in black) systems. Not pictured are anatomical cross-talk connections between the reaching and grasping networks (i.e., between V6A and anterior intraparietal (AIP)/Ventral premotor cortex (PMv), see Fattori et al., 2015).

Mentions: The reaching, grasping, and oculomotor systems all involve parallel networks of fronto-parietal areas (Figure 1). A dorsomedial stream, projecting from visual area V6 (Rizzolatti and Matelli, 2003; Passarelli et al., 2011), consisting of the medial intraparietal (MIP) area and area V6A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL), along with the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) in the frontal lobe, which forms what is thought to be the neural network for reaching in the non-human primate (Caminiti et al., 1996; Culham et al., 2006; Filimon, 2010), with homologs in humans (Culham et al., 2006; Filimon, 2010). As with reaching, it has been suggested that there is a parallel dorsolateral circuit specialized for grasping (Fagg and Arbib, 1998; Luppino et al., 2001; Filimon, 2010) that projects from visual area MT/V5 (Rizzolatti and Matelli, 2003), and that this circuit is mainly dependent upon connections between the anterior intraparietal (AIP) region in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), with homologous areas in humans (Fagg and Arbib, 1998; Culham et al., 2003, 2006; Frey et al., 2005). The reaching and grasping circuits however, appear to not be as completely functionally distinct as once thought as recent work has also found grasping related activity in the dorsomedial stream in non-human primate (Raos et al., 2003, 2004; Fattori et al., 2009, 2010, 2012) and human populations (Gallivan et al., 2011; Monaco et al., 2011). In fact, it has been suggested that the visual, somatosensory, and motor properties of V6A indicate a role for this area in the online error control for all of prehension, including reaching and grasping (Fattori et al., 2015). For movements of the eyes, the cortical oculomotor system in non-human primates and humans is comprised of the lateral intrapariental area (LIP)/parietal eye fields (PEF) and the frontal eye fields (FEF; Goldberg and Segraves, 1989; Bisley and Goldberg, 2003; Culham and Valyear, 2006; Culham et al., 2006). Due to the similarity between the anatomical components of these systems, we suggest that it is possible that oculomotor feedback mechanisms enhancing visual processing, could be replicated by the reaching and grasping networks to alter visual processing near the hand.


An Eye in the Palm of Your Hand: Alterations in Visual Processing Near the Hand, a Mini-Review.

Perry CJ, Amarasooriya P, Fallah M - Front Comput Neurosci (2016)

Reach, grasp, and oculomotor control brain regions in the macaque. Shown are the cortical brain regions associated with the reach (in red), grasp (in blue), oculomotor (in green), and visual (in black) systems. Not pictured are anatomical cross-talk connections between the reaching and grasping networks (i.e., between V6A and anterior intraparietal (AIP)/Ventral premotor cortex (PMv), see Fattori et al., 2015).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4834298&req=5

Figure 1: Reach, grasp, and oculomotor control brain regions in the macaque. Shown are the cortical brain regions associated with the reach (in red), grasp (in blue), oculomotor (in green), and visual (in black) systems. Not pictured are anatomical cross-talk connections between the reaching and grasping networks (i.e., between V6A and anterior intraparietal (AIP)/Ventral premotor cortex (PMv), see Fattori et al., 2015).
Mentions: The reaching, grasping, and oculomotor systems all involve parallel networks of fronto-parietal areas (Figure 1). A dorsomedial stream, projecting from visual area V6 (Rizzolatti and Matelli, 2003; Passarelli et al., 2011), consisting of the medial intraparietal (MIP) area and area V6A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL), along with the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) in the frontal lobe, which forms what is thought to be the neural network for reaching in the non-human primate (Caminiti et al., 1996; Culham et al., 2006; Filimon, 2010), with homologs in humans (Culham et al., 2006; Filimon, 2010). As with reaching, it has been suggested that there is a parallel dorsolateral circuit specialized for grasping (Fagg and Arbib, 1998; Luppino et al., 2001; Filimon, 2010) that projects from visual area MT/V5 (Rizzolatti and Matelli, 2003), and that this circuit is mainly dependent upon connections between the anterior intraparietal (AIP) region in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), with homologous areas in humans (Fagg and Arbib, 1998; Culham et al., 2003, 2006; Frey et al., 2005). The reaching and grasping circuits however, appear to not be as completely functionally distinct as once thought as recent work has also found grasping related activity in the dorsomedial stream in non-human primate (Raos et al., 2003, 2004; Fattori et al., 2009, 2010, 2012) and human populations (Gallivan et al., 2011; Monaco et al., 2011). In fact, it has been suggested that the visual, somatosensory, and motor properties of V6A indicate a role for this area in the online error control for all of prehension, including reaching and grasping (Fattori et al., 2015). For movements of the eyes, the cortical oculomotor system in non-human primates and humans is comprised of the lateral intrapariental area (LIP)/parietal eye fields (PEF) and the frontal eye fields (FEF; Goldberg and Segraves, 1989; Bisley and Goldberg, 2003; Culham and Valyear, 2006; Culham et al., 2006). Due to the similarity between the anatomical components of these systems, we suggest that it is possible that oculomotor feedback mechanisms enhancing visual processing, could be replicated by the reaching and grasping networks to alter visual processing near the hand.

Bottom Line: We do not just view the world around us however, we also reach out and grab things with our hands.Since the oculomotor system effects on visual processing occur through feedback, both through the motor plan and the motor efference copy, a parallel system where reaching and/or grasping motor-related activity also affects visual processing is likely.Finally, we summarize the two effector-based feedback systems and discuss how having separate but parallel effector systems allows for efficient decoupling of eye and hand movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Visual Perception and Attention Laboratory, York UniversityToronto, ON, Canada; Centre for Vision Research, York UniversityToronto, ON, Canada; School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York UniversityToronto, ON, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Feedback within the oculomotor system improves visual processing at eye movement end points, also termed a visual grasp. We do not just view the world around us however, we also reach out and grab things with our hands. A growing body of literature suggests that visual processing in near-hand space is altered. The control systems for moving either the eyes or the hands rely on parallel networks of fronto-parietal regions, which have feedback connections to visual areas. Since the oculomotor system effects on visual processing occur through feedback, both through the motor plan and the motor efference copy, a parallel system where reaching and/or grasping motor-related activity also affects visual processing is likely. Areas in the posterior parietal cortex, for example, receive proprioceptive and visual information used to guide actions, as well as motor efference signals. This trio of information channels is all that would be necessary to produce spatial allocation of reach-related visual attention. We review evidence from behavioral and neurophysiological studies that support the hypothesis that feedback from the reaching and/or grasping motor control networks affects visual processing while noting ways in which it differs from that seen within the oculomotor system. We also suggest that object affordances may represent the neural mechanism through which certain object features are selected for preferential processing when stimuli are near the hand. Finally, we summarize the two effector-based feedback systems and discuss how having separate but parallel effector systems allows for efficient decoupling of eye and hand movements.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus