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Exposure to Bisphenol A and Phthalates during Pregnancy and Ultrasound Measures of Fetal Growth in the INMA-Sabadell Cohort.

Casas M, Valvi D, Ballesteros-Gomez A, Gascon M, Fernández MF, Garcia-Esteban R, Iñiguez C, Martínez D, Murcia M, Monfort N, Luque N, Rubio S, Ventura R, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Bottom Line: MBzP was positively associated with birth weight among boys (48 g; 95% CI: 6, 90) but not in girls (-27 g; 95% CI: -79, 25) (interaction p-value = 0.04).The LMWPm mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was negatively associated with HC at 12-20 pregnancy weeks [-4.88% of HC average (95% CI: -8.36, -1.36%)].Phthalate metabolites MBzP and MnBP were associated with some fetal growth parameters, but these findings require replication.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates may affect fetal growth; however, previous findings are inconsistent and based on few studies.

Objectives: We assessed whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates was associated with fetal growth in a Spanish birth cohort of 488 mother-child pairs.

Methods: We measured BPA and eight phthalates [four di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (DEHPm), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (LMWPm)] in two spot-urine samples collected during the first and third trimester of pregnancy. We estimated growth curves for femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) during pregnancy (weeks 12-20 and 20-34), and for birth weight, birth length, head circumference at birth, and placental weight.

Results: Overall, results did not support associations of exposure to BPA or DEHPm during pregnancy with fetal growth parameters. Prenatal MBzP exposure was positively associated with FL at 20-34 weeks, resulting in an increase of 3.70% of the average FL (95% CI: 0.75, 6.63%) per doubling of MBzP concentration. MBzP was positively associated with birth weight among boys (48 g; 95% CI: 6, 90) but not in girls (-27 g; 95% CI: -79, 25) (interaction p-value = 0.04). The LMWPm mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was negatively associated with HC at 12-20 pregnancy weeks [-4.88% of HC average (95% CI: -8.36, -1.36%)].

Conclusions: This study, one of the first to combine repeat exposure biomarker measurements and multiple growth measures during pregnancy, finds little evidence of associations of BPA or phthalate exposures with fetal growth. Phthalate metabolites MBzP and MnBP were associated with some fetal growth parameters, but these findings require replication.

Citation: Casas M, Valvi D, Ballesteros-Gomez A, Gascon M, Fernández MF, Garcia-Esteban R, Iñiguez C, Martínez D, Murcia M, Monfort N, Luque N, Rubio S, Ventura R, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2016. Exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates during pregnancy and ultrasound measures of fetal growth in the INMA-Sabadell cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:521-528; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409190.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Adjusted associations between maternal urinary MnBP levels (μg/g creatinine) and fetal and size growth parameters in the overall population, in girls, and in boys: femur length (A), head circumference (B), abdominal circumference (C), and estimated fetal weight (D).MnBP, mono-n-butyl phthalate. Mean percent difference in standard deviation scores per doubling of MnBP levels (levels were log2-transformed). Femur length model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Head circumference model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height/weight, paternal weight, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Abdominal circumference model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height/weight, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Estimated fetal weight model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy.
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f3: Adjusted associations between maternal urinary MnBP levels (μg/g creatinine) and fetal and size growth parameters in the overall population, in girls, and in boys: femur length (A), head circumference (B), abdominal circumference (C), and estimated fetal weight (D).MnBP, mono-n-butyl phthalate. Mean percent difference in standard deviation scores per doubling of MnBP levels (levels were log2-transformed). Femur length model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Head circumference model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height/weight, paternal weight, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Abdominal circumference model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height/weight, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Estimated fetal weight model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy.

Mentions: Exposure to ΣLMWPm was not significantly associated with any of the fetal size or fetal growth outcomes (see Supplemental Material, Table S8) or any of the birth outcomes assessed (Table 2; see also Supplemental Material, Table S7). The metabolite MnBP was associated with significantly lower HC growth from 12 to 20 weeks (–4.88%; 95% CI: –8.36, –1.36%) and EFW growth from 12 to 20 weeks (–4.32%; 95% CI: –8.33, –0.27%) (Figure 3; see also Supplemental Material, Table S8). MnBP was associated with greater AC and EFW growth from 20 to 34 weeks in boys (4.29%; 95% CI: 0.01, 8.53% and 4.27%; 95% CI: –0.18, 8.68%, respectively) but not in girls (0.39%; 95% CI: –4.76, 5.54% and 1.22%; 95% CI: –3.36, 5.78%, respectively), though differences were not significant (p interaction = 0.21 and 0.31, respectively) (Figure 3). MnBP was also associated with higher birth weight in boys (57 g; 95% CI: 3, 110) but not girls (11 g; 95% CI: –40, 62) (p interaction = 0.29) (see Supplemental Material, Table S7). Further, the metabolite MiBP was associated with lower birth weight in girls (–73 g; 95% CI: –137, –9) but not among boys (19 g; 95% CI: –35, 74) (p interaction = 0.08) (see Supplemental Material, Table S6). Associations of individual LMWP metabolites with other birth outcomes were not statistically significant overall or in girls or boys (see Supplemental Material, Table S7). Of the associations that were statistically significant in primary analyses, only the association between MnBP and HC growth from 12 to 20 weeks met our criteria for consistency (see Supplemental Material, Tables S4 and S5).


Exposure to Bisphenol A and Phthalates during Pregnancy and Ultrasound Measures of Fetal Growth in the INMA-Sabadell Cohort.

Casas M, Valvi D, Ballesteros-Gomez A, Gascon M, Fernández MF, Garcia-Esteban R, Iñiguez C, Martínez D, Murcia M, Monfort N, Luque N, Rubio S, Ventura R, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Adjusted associations between maternal urinary MnBP levels (μg/g creatinine) and fetal and size growth parameters in the overall population, in girls, and in boys: femur length (A), head circumference (B), abdominal circumference (C), and estimated fetal weight (D).MnBP, mono-n-butyl phthalate. Mean percent difference in standard deviation scores per doubling of MnBP levels (levels were log2-transformed). Femur length model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Head circumference model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height/weight, paternal weight, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Abdominal circumference model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height/weight, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Estimated fetal weight model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829997&req=5

f3: Adjusted associations between maternal urinary MnBP levels (μg/g creatinine) and fetal and size growth parameters in the overall population, in girls, and in boys: femur length (A), head circumference (B), abdominal circumference (C), and estimated fetal weight (D).MnBP, mono-n-butyl phthalate. Mean percent difference in standard deviation scores per doubling of MnBP levels (levels were log2-transformed). Femur length model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Head circumference model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height/weight, paternal weight, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Abdominal circumference model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height/weight, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy. Estimated fetal weight model was adjusted for maternal age, maternal height, paternal weight, maternal country of origin, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, parity, birth season, and urinary cotinine levels during pregnancy.
Mentions: Exposure to ΣLMWPm was not significantly associated with any of the fetal size or fetal growth outcomes (see Supplemental Material, Table S8) or any of the birth outcomes assessed (Table 2; see also Supplemental Material, Table S7). The metabolite MnBP was associated with significantly lower HC growth from 12 to 20 weeks (–4.88%; 95% CI: –8.36, –1.36%) and EFW growth from 12 to 20 weeks (–4.32%; 95% CI: –8.33, –0.27%) (Figure 3; see also Supplemental Material, Table S8). MnBP was associated with greater AC and EFW growth from 20 to 34 weeks in boys (4.29%; 95% CI: 0.01, 8.53% and 4.27%; 95% CI: –0.18, 8.68%, respectively) but not in girls (0.39%; 95% CI: –4.76, 5.54% and 1.22%; 95% CI: –3.36, 5.78%, respectively), though differences were not significant (p interaction = 0.21 and 0.31, respectively) (Figure 3). MnBP was also associated with higher birth weight in boys (57 g; 95% CI: 3, 110) but not girls (11 g; 95% CI: –40, 62) (p interaction = 0.29) (see Supplemental Material, Table S7). Further, the metabolite MiBP was associated with lower birth weight in girls (–73 g; 95% CI: –137, –9) but not among boys (19 g; 95% CI: –35, 74) (p interaction = 0.08) (see Supplemental Material, Table S6). Associations of individual LMWP metabolites with other birth outcomes were not statistically significant overall or in girls or boys (see Supplemental Material, Table S7). Of the associations that were statistically significant in primary analyses, only the association between MnBP and HC growth from 12 to 20 weeks met our criteria for consistency (see Supplemental Material, Tables S4 and S5).

Bottom Line: MBzP was positively associated with birth weight among boys (48 g; 95% CI: 6, 90) but not in girls (-27 g; 95% CI: -79, 25) (interaction p-value = 0.04).The LMWPm mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was negatively associated with HC at 12-20 pregnancy weeks [-4.88% of HC average (95% CI: -8.36, -1.36%)].Phthalate metabolites MBzP and MnBP were associated with some fetal growth parameters, but these findings require replication.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates may affect fetal growth; however, previous findings are inconsistent and based on few studies.

Objectives: We assessed whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates was associated with fetal growth in a Spanish birth cohort of 488 mother-child pairs.

Methods: We measured BPA and eight phthalates [four di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (DEHPm), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (LMWPm)] in two spot-urine samples collected during the first and third trimester of pregnancy. We estimated growth curves for femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) during pregnancy (weeks 12-20 and 20-34), and for birth weight, birth length, head circumference at birth, and placental weight.

Results: Overall, results did not support associations of exposure to BPA or DEHPm during pregnancy with fetal growth parameters. Prenatal MBzP exposure was positively associated with FL at 20-34 weeks, resulting in an increase of 3.70% of the average FL (95% CI: 0.75, 6.63%) per doubling of MBzP concentration. MBzP was positively associated with birth weight among boys (48 g; 95% CI: 6, 90) but not in girls (-27 g; 95% CI: -79, 25) (interaction p-value = 0.04). The LMWPm mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was negatively associated with HC at 12-20 pregnancy weeks [-4.88% of HC average (95% CI: -8.36, -1.36%)].

Conclusions: This study, one of the first to combine repeat exposure biomarker measurements and multiple growth measures during pregnancy, finds little evidence of associations of BPA or phthalate exposures with fetal growth. Phthalate metabolites MBzP and MnBP were associated with some fetal growth parameters, but these findings require replication.

Citation: Casas M, Valvi D, Ballesteros-Gomez A, Gascon M, Fernández MF, Garcia-Esteban R, Iñiguez C, Martínez D, Murcia M, Monfort N, Luque N, Rubio S, Ventura R, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2016. Exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates during pregnancy and ultrasound measures of fetal growth in the INMA-Sabadell cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:521-528; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409190.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus