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Thyroid Antagonists (Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, and Nitrate) and Childhood Growth in a Longitudinal Study of U.S. Girls.

Mervish NA, Pajak A, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Valentin-Blasini L, Blount BC, Wolff MS, Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCER - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Bottom Line: Higher NIS inhibitor exposure biomarkers were associated with reductions in waist circumference and BMI.Mervish NA, Pajak A, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Valentin-Blasini L, Blount BC, Wolff MS, for the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCERP). 2016.Thyroid antagonists (perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate) and childhood growth in a longitudinal study of U.S. girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate are sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors that block iodide uptake into the thyroid, thus affecting thyroid function. Thyroid dysfunction can adversely affect somatic growth and development in children. To our knowledge, no studies have examined effects of NIS inhibitors on body size measures.

Objective: We investigated associations between NIS inhibitors and childhood growth in 940 girls from the Puberty Study of the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program.

Methods: Urine samples collected from girls 6-8 years of age at enrollment (2004-2007) from New York City, greater Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Bay Area in California were analyzed for NIS inhibitors and creatinine (C). The longitudinal association between NIS inhibitors and anthropometric measures [height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI)] during at least three visits was examined using mixed effects linear models, adjusted for race and site.

Results: Compared with girls in the low-exposure group (3.6, 626, and 500 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) girls with the highest NIS inhibitor exposure (9.6, 2,343, and 955 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) had slower growth in waist circumference and BMI but not height. Significant differences in the predicted mean waist circumference and BMI between the low- and high-exposure groups were observed beginning at 11 years of age.

Conclusions: Higher NIS inhibitor exposure biomarkers were associated with reductions in waist circumference and BMI. These findings underscore the need to assess exposure to NIS inhibitors with respect to their influence on childhood growth.

Citation: Mervish NA, Pajak A, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Valentin-Blasini L, Blount BC, Wolff MS, for the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCERP). 2016. Thyroid antagonists (perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate) and childhood growth in a longitudinal study of U.S. girls. Environ Health Perspect 124:542-549; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409309.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Estimated differences (95% CI) in height, waist circumference, and BMI, by age between the low and high combined NIS biomarker categories: predicted differences using mixed-effects models in 940 girls, BCERP 2004–2007. Low group is below the median concentration of all three NIS biomarkers; high group is above the median concentration of all three NIS biomarkers. Medium group not shown. Final mixed-effects model was adjusted for race/ethnicity and site. *p < 0.05 for the predicted differences between the low- and high-exposure category.
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f1: Estimated differences (95% CI) in height, waist circumference, and BMI, by age between the low and high combined NIS biomarker categories: predicted differences using mixed-effects models in 940 girls, BCERP 2004–2007. Low group is below the median concentration of all three NIS biomarkers; high group is above the median concentration of all three NIS biomarkers. Medium group not shown. Final mixed-effects model was adjusted for race/ethnicity and site. *p < 0.05 for the predicted differences between the low- and high-exposure category.

Mentions: Growth models. Height. Girls exposed to combined low concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate were consistently taller than the girls with high perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate (Table 3). However, differences in height began to converge by 12 years of age, and heights were similar between the high- and low-exposure groups by 13 years of age (Figures 1 and 2).


Thyroid Antagonists (Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, and Nitrate) and Childhood Growth in a Longitudinal Study of U.S. Girls.

Mervish NA, Pajak A, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Valentin-Blasini L, Blount BC, Wolff MS, Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCER - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Estimated differences (95% CI) in height, waist circumference, and BMI, by age between the low and high combined NIS biomarker categories: predicted differences using mixed-effects models in 940 girls, BCERP 2004–2007. Low group is below the median concentration of all three NIS biomarkers; high group is above the median concentration of all three NIS biomarkers. Medium group not shown. Final mixed-effects model was adjusted for race/ethnicity and site. *p < 0.05 for the predicted differences between the low- and high-exposure category.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829993&req=5

f1: Estimated differences (95% CI) in height, waist circumference, and BMI, by age between the low and high combined NIS biomarker categories: predicted differences using mixed-effects models in 940 girls, BCERP 2004–2007. Low group is below the median concentration of all three NIS biomarkers; high group is above the median concentration of all three NIS biomarkers. Medium group not shown. Final mixed-effects model was adjusted for race/ethnicity and site. *p < 0.05 for the predicted differences between the low- and high-exposure category.
Mentions: Growth models. Height. Girls exposed to combined low concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate were consistently taller than the girls with high perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate (Table 3). However, differences in height began to converge by 12 years of age, and heights were similar between the high- and low-exposure groups by 13 years of age (Figures 1 and 2).

Bottom Line: Higher NIS inhibitor exposure biomarkers were associated with reductions in waist circumference and BMI.Mervish NA, Pajak A, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Valentin-Blasini L, Blount BC, Wolff MS, for the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCERP). 2016.Thyroid antagonists (perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate) and childhood growth in a longitudinal study of U.S. girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate are sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors that block iodide uptake into the thyroid, thus affecting thyroid function. Thyroid dysfunction can adversely affect somatic growth and development in children. To our knowledge, no studies have examined effects of NIS inhibitors on body size measures.

Objective: We investigated associations between NIS inhibitors and childhood growth in 940 girls from the Puberty Study of the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program.

Methods: Urine samples collected from girls 6-8 years of age at enrollment (2004-2007) from New York City, greater Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Bay Area in California were analyzed for NIS inhibitors and creatinine (C). The longitudinal association between NIS inhibitors and anthropometric measures [height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI)] during at least three visits was examined using mixed effects linear models, adjusted for race and site.

Results: Compared with girls in the low-exposure group (3.6, 626, and 500 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) girls with the highest NIS inhibitor exposure (9.6, 2,343, and 955 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) had slower growth in waist circumference and BMI but not height. Significant differences in the predicted mean waist circumference and BMI between the low- and high-exposure groups were observed beginning at 11 years of age.

Conclusions: Higher NIS inhibitor exposure biomarkers were associated with reductions in waist circumference and BMI. These findings underscore the need to assess exposure to NIS inhibitors with respect to their influence on childhood growth.

Citation: Mervish NA, Pajak A, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Valentin-Blasini L, Blount BC, Wolff MS, for the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCERP). 2016. Thyroid antagonists (perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate) and childhood growth in a longitudinal study of U.S. girls. Environ Health Perspect 124:542-549; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409309.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus