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A Prospective Study of Marine Phytoplankton and Reported Illness Among Recreational Beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009.

Lin CJ, Wade TJ, Sams EA, Dufour AP, Chapman AD, Hilborn ED - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Bottom Line: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews.In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.67), rash (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.66), eye irritation (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.62), and earache (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.93).We also found that associations varied by phytoplankton group, with Cyanobacteria having the strongest and most consistent associations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) Research Participation Program at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.

Objective: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers.

Methods: We recruited beachgoers at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness.

Results: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/mL (median, 712 cells/mL). The category with the highest (≥ 75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.67), rash (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.66), eye irritation (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.62), and earache (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.93).

Conclusions: We found associations between recreational exposure to marine phytoplankton and reports of eye irritation, respiratory illness, and rash. We also found that associations varied by phytoplankton group, with Cyanobacteria having the strongest and most consistent associations.

Citation: Lin CJ, Wade TJ, Sams EA, Dufour AP, Chapman AD, Hilborn ED. 2016. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009. Environ Health Perspect 124:477-483; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409558.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Associations between Cyanobacteria cell count and illness among beachgoers who reported body immersion in water. Models adjusted for age (as a continuous variable) and sex. Q1 = 25th percentile; Q3 = 75th percentile.
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f2: Associations between Cyanobacteria cell count and illness among beachgoers who reported body immersion in water. Models adjusted for age (as a continuous variable) and sex. Q1 = 25th percentile; Q3 = 75th percentile.

Mentions: Phytoplankton count and incident illness. Among beachgoers who reported body immersion, the highest category of total phytoplankton cell count (≥ 75th percentile) was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.77) (Table 5). Cyanobacteria cell counts were associated with respiratory illness, eye irritation, rash, and earache. These associations, although not all statistically significant at α = 0.05, strengthened with increasing Cyanobacteria cell count categories (Figure 2). In particular, respiratory illness, rash, and earache all had associations that increased relatively monotonically with each Cyanobacteria cell count category. Respiratory illness had the strongest association with all Cyanobacteria cell count categories. Table 5 shows the associations between phytoplankton group cell count and incident illness among beachgoers who reported body immersion.


A Prospective Study of Marine Phytoplankton and Reported Illness Among Recreational Beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009.

Lin CJ, Wade TJ, Sams EA, Dufour AP, Chapman AD, Hilborn ED - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Associations between Cyanobacteria cell count and illness among beachgoers who reported body immersion in water. Models adjusted for age (as a continuous variable) and sex. Q1 = 25th percentile; Q3 = 75th percentile.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829982&req=5

f2: Associations between Cyanobacteria cell count and illness among beachgoers who reported body immersion in water. Models adjusted for age (as a continuous variable) and sex. Q1 = 25th percentile; Q3 = 75th percentile.
Mentions: Phytoplankton count and incident illness. Among beachgoers who reported body immersion, the highest category of total phytoplankton cell count (≥ 75th percentile) was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.77) (Table 5). Cyanobacteria cell counts were associated with respiratory illness, eye irritation, rash, and earache. These associations, although not all statistically significant at α = 0.05, strengthened with increasing Cyanobacteria cell count categories (Figure 2). In particular, respiratory illness, rash, and earache all had associations that increased relatively monotonically with each Cyanobacteria cell count category. Respiratory illness had the strongest association with all Cyanobacteria cell count categories. Table 5 shows the associations between phytoplankton group cell count and incident illness among beachgoers who reported body immersion.

Bottom Line: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews.In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.67), rash (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.66), eye irritation (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.62), and earache (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.93).We also found that associations varied by phytoplankton group, with Cyanobacteria having the strongest and most consistent associations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) Research Participation Program at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.

Objective: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers.

Methods: We recruited beachgoers at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness.

Results: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/mL (median, 712 cells/mL). The category with the highest (≥ 75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.67), rash (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.66), eye irritation (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.62), and earache (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.93).

Conclusions: We found associations between recreational exposure to marine phytoplankton and reports of eye irritation, respiratory illness, and rash. We also found that associations varied by phytoplankton group, with Cyanobacteria having the strongest and most consistent associations.

Citation: Lin CJ, Wade TJ, Sams EA, Dufour AP, Chapman AD, Hilborn ED. 2016. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009. Environ Health Perspect 124:477-483; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409558.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus