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Desert Dust Outbreaks in Southern Europe: Contribution to Daily PM₁₀ Concentrations and Short-Term Associations with Mortality and Hospital Admissions.

Stafoggia M, Zauli-Sajani S, Pey J, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Basagaña X, Cernigliaro A, Chiusolo M, Demaria M, Díaz J, Faustini A, Katsouyanni K, Kelessis AG, Linares C, Marchesi S, Medina S, Pandolfi P, Pérez N, Querol X, Randi G, Ranzi A, Tobias A, Forastiere F, MED-PARTICLES Study Gro - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Bottom Line: Finally, we pooled city-specific results in a random-effects meta-analysis.We found significant associations of both PM10 concentrations with mortality.PM10 originating from the desert was positively associated with mortality and hospitalizations in Southern Europe.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence on the association between short-term exposure to desert dust and health outcomes is controversial.

Objectives: We aimed to estimate the short-term effects of particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) on mortality and hospital admissions in 13 Southern European cities, distinguishing between PM10 originating from the desert and from other sources.

Methods: We identified desert dust advection days in multiple Mediterranean areas for 2001-2010 by combining modeling tools, back-trajectories, and satellite data. For each advection day, we estimated PM10 concentrations originating from desert, and computed PM10 from other sources by difference. We fitted city-specific Poisson regression models to estimate the association between PM from different sources (desert and non-desert) and daily mortality and emergency hospitalizations. Finally, we pooled city-specific results in a random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: On average, 15% of days were affected by desert dust at ground level (desert PM10 > 0 μg/m3). Most episodes occurred in spring-summer, with increasing gradient of both frequency and intensity north-south and west-east of the Mediterranean basin. We found significant associations of both PM10 concentrations with mortality. Increases of 10 μg/m3 in non-desert and desert PM10 (lag 0-1 days) were associated with increases in natural mortality of 0.55% (95% CI: 0.24, 0.87%) and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.24, 1.06%), respectively. Similar associations were estimated for cardio-respiratory mortality and hospital admissions.

Conclusions: PM10 originating from the desert was positively associated with mortality and hospitalizations in Southern Europe. Policy measures should aim at reducing population exposure to anthropogenic airborne particles even in areas with large contribution from desert dust advections.

Citation: Stafoggia M, Zauli-Sajani S, Pey J, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Basagaña X, Cernigliaro A, Chiusolo M, Demaria M, Díaz J, Faustini A, Katsouyanni K, Kelessis AG, Linares C, Marchesi S, Medina S, Pandolfi P, Pérez N, Querol X, Randi G, Ranzi A, Tobias A, Forastiere F, MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2016. Desert dust outbreaks in Southern Europe: contribution to daily PM10 concentrations and short-term associations with mortality and hospital admissions. Environ Health Perspect 124:413-419; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409164.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Forest plot with results on estimated percent increases (95% CI) in risk of natural mortality associated with 10-μg/m3 increase in total PM10 (A), non-desert PM10 (B), and desert PM10 (C).Points represent city-specific association estimates, with corresponding 95% CIs (bars). The shaded boxes represent the weights attributed to each estimate in the meta-analysis. Finally, the diamond in the bottom part represents the meta-analytical effect estimate. D-L, DerSimonian and Laird method.
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f1: Forest plot with results on estimated percent increases (95% CI) in risk of natural mortality associated with 10-μg/m3 increase in total PM10 (A), non-desert PM10 (B), and desert PM10 (C).Points represent city-specific association estimates, with corresponding 95% CIs (bars). The shaded boxes represent the weights attributed to each estimate in the meta-analysis. Finally, the diamond in the bottom part represents the meta-analytical effect estimate. D-L, DerSimonian and Laird method.

Mentions: Table 3 shows the associations between total PM10 (from single-pollutant models) and source-specific PM10 (from two-pollutant models) with daily mortality and hospital admissions. Total PM10 was associated with all the study outcomes: Increments of 10 μg/m3 were associated with 0.51% (lag 0–1, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.75%), 0.66% (lag 0–5, 95% CI: –0.02, 1.34%), and 2.01% (lag 0–5, 95% CI: 0.92, 3.12%) increases in natural, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for cardiorespiratory admissions. Associations of mortality and hospitalizations with 10-μg/m3 increases of desert and non-desert PM10 were similar for all natural mortality (0.65%; 95% CI: 0.24, 1.06 and 0.55%; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87, respectively), though the association with desert dust appeared stronger for cardiovascular mortality (1.10%; 95% CI: 0.16, 2.06 compared with 0.49%; 95% CI: –0.31, 1.29 for non-desert dust) and weaker for respiratory mortality (1.28%; 95% CI: –0.42, 3.01 compared with 2.46%; 95% CI: 0.96, 3.98). In general, city-specific estimates of the association with desert PM10 were homogeneous (p-value of heterogeneity > 0.05), whereas consistent heterogeneity was found for the association of non-desert PM10 with cardiorespiratory mortality and cardiovascular admissions (p-value < 0.05) (Table 3 and Figure 1). Within-city differences between associations of natural mortality with desert and non-desert PM10 were not significant (pooled p-value 0.72) except in Barcelona, where the association was stronger for non-desert PM10 (1.36%; 95% CI: 0.70, 2.03) than desert PM10 (–0.16%; 95% CI: –1.57, 1.27) (p = 0.05).


Desert Dust Outbreaks in Southern Europe: Contribution to Daily PM₁₀ Concentrations and Short-Term Associations with Mortality and Hospital Admissions.

Stafoggia M, Zauli-Sajani S, Pey J, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Basagaña X, Cernigliaro A, Chiusolo M, Demaria M, Díaz J, Faustini A, Katsouyanni K, Kelessis AG, Linares C, Marchesi S, Medina S, Pandolfi P, Pérez N, Querol X, Randi G, Ranzi A, Tobias A, Forastiere F, MED-PARTICLES Study Gro - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Forest plot with results on estimated percent increases (95% CI) in risk of natural mortality associated with 10-μg/m3 increase in total PM10 (A), non-desert PM10 (B), and desert PM10 (C).Points represent city-specific association estimates, with corresponding 95% CIs (bars). The shaded boxes represent the weights attributed to each estimate in the meta-analysis. Finally, the diamond in the bottom part represents the meta-analytical effect estimate. D-L, DerSimonian and Laird method.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829979&req=5

f1: Forest plot with results on estimated percent increases (95% CI) in risk of natural mortality associated with 10-μg/m3 increase in total PM10 (A), non-desert PM10 (B), and desert PM10 (C).Points represent city-specific association estimates, with corresponding 95% CIs (bars). The shaded boxes represent the weights attributed to each estimate in the meta-analysis. Finally, the diamond in the bottom part represents the meta-analytical effect estimate. D-L, DerSimonian and Laird method.
Mentions: Table 3 shows the associations between total PM10 (from single-pollutant models) and source-specific PM10 (from two-pollutant models) with daily mortality and hospital admissions. Total PM10 was associated with all the study outcomes: Increments of 10 μg/m3 were associated with 0.51% (lag 0–1, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.75%), 0.66% (lag 0–5, 95% CI: –0.02, 1.34%), and 2.01% (lag 0–5, 95% CI: 0.92, 3.12%) increases in natural, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for cardiorespiratory admissions. Associations of mortality and hospitalizations with 10-μg/m3 increases of desert and non-desert PM10 were similar for all natural mortality (0.65%; 95% CI: 0.24, 1.06 and 0.55%; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87, respectively), though the association with desert dust appeared stronger for cardiovascular mortality (1.10%; 95% CI: 0.16, 2.06 compared with 0.49%; 95% CI: –0.31, 1.29 for non-desert dust) and weaker for respiratory mortality (1.28%; 95% CI: –0.42, 3.01 compared with 2.46%; 95% CI: 0.96, 3.98). In general, city-specific estimates of the association with desert PM10 were homogeneous (p-value of heterogeneity > 0.05), whereas consistent heterogeneity was found for the association of non-desert PM10 with cardiorespiratory mortality and cardiovascular admissions (p-value < 0.05) (Table 3 and Figure 1). Within-city differences between associations of natural mortality with desert and non-desert PM10 were not significant (pooled p-value 0.72) except in Barcelona, where the association was stronger for non-desert PM10 (1.36%; 95% CI: 0.70, 2.03) than desert PM10 (–0.16%; 95% CI: –1.57, 1.27) (p = 0.05).

Bottom Line: Finally, we pooled city-specific results in a random-effects meta-analysis.We found significant associations of both PM10 concentrations with mortality.PM10 originating from the desert was positively associated with mortality and hospitalizations in Southern Europe.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence on the association between short-term exposure to desert dust and health outcomes is controversial.

Objectives: We aimed to estimate the short-term effects of particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) on mortality and hospital admissions in 13 Southern European cities, distinguishing between PM10 originating from the desert and from other sources.

Methods: We identified desert dust advection days in multiple Mediterranean areas for 2001-2010 by combining modeling tools, back-trajectories, and satellite data. For each advection day, we estimated PM10 concentrations originating from desert, and computed PM10 from other sources by difference. We fitted city-specific Poisson regression models to estimate the association between PM from different sources (desert and non-desert) and daily mortality and emergency hospitalizations. Finally, we pooled city-specific results in a random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: On average, 15% of days were affected by desert dust at ground level (desert PM10 > 0 μg/m3). Most episodes occurred in spring-summer, with increasing gradient of both frequency and intensity north-south and west-east of the Mediterranean basin. We found significant associations of both PM10 concentrations with mortality. Increases of 10 μg/m3 in non-desert and desert PM10 (lag 0-1 days) were associated with increases in natural mortality of 0.55% (95% CI: 0.24, 0.87%) and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.24, 1.06%), respectively. Similar associations were estimated for cardio-respiratory mortality and hospital admissions.

Conclusions: PM10 originating from the desert was positively associated with mortality and hospitalizations in Southern Europe. Policy measures should aim at reducing population exposure to anthropogenic airborne particles even in areas with large contribution from desert dust advections.

Citation: Stafoggia M, Zauli-Sajani S, Pey J, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Basagaña X, Cernigliaro A, Chiusolo M, Demaria M, Díaz J, Faustini A, Katsouyanni K, Kelessis AG, Linares C, Marchesi S, Medina S, Pandolfi P, Pérez N, Querol X, Randi G, Ranzi A, Tobias A, Forastiere F, MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2016. Desert dust outbreaks in Southern Europe: contribution to daily PM10 concentrations and short-term associations with mortality and hospital admissions. Environ Health Perspect 124:413-419; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409164.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus