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Phylogeny of the Oniticellini and Onthophagini dung beetles (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae) from morphological evidence.

Philips TK - Zookeys (2016)

Bottom Line: The monophyly and sister relationship of both tribes was found using Bayesian and parsimony analyses with heavily to moderately weighted data.The genus Liatongus is paraphyletic, while strong support was found for monophyly of the Madagascan genus, Helictopleurus.The phylogenetic analysis supports an African origin for the two tribes, with a relatively early age for the split of the Madagascar helictopleurines from the remaining oniticellines via dispersal.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Systematics and Evolution Laboratory, Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101, USA; Correspondence: Dr. T. K. Philips, Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd. #11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080, USA.

ABSTRACT
A phylogenetic study was conducted to hypothesize relationships of most of the genera of the Oniticellini and Onthophagini for the first time using morphological characters from a diverse array of external and internal sclerites. The monophyly and sister relationship of both tribes was found using Bayesian and parsimony analyses with heavily to moderately weighted data. An alternative hypothesis based on parsimony analyses of unweighted or slightly weighted data show a paraphyletic Oniticellini without the Onthophagini, although recognition of the subtribe Helictopleurina as a tribe would eliminate non-monophyly. Of the three Oniticellini subtribes, the Helictopleurina and Drepanocerina are monophyletic. There is no support for the monophyly of the Oniticellina or the Onthophagini subtribe Alloscelina, as currently defined. The genus Liatongus is paraphyletic, while strong support was found for monophyly of the Madagascan genus, Helictopleurus. The genus Onthophagus is never monophyletic in any analysis performed. Two new subtribes are also proposed: Liatongina subtr. n. including the genus Liatongus and Attavicina subtr. n. including the genera Attavicinus and Paroniticellus. Topological evidence shows that the ancestral oniticellines and onthophagines were all coprophagous with alternative food sources evolving relatively recently. Both myrmecophily and termitophily probably evolved only once in the onthophagines. The phylogenetic analysis supports an African origin for the two tribes, with a relatively early age for the split of the Madagascar helictopleurines from the remaining oniticellines via dispersal. Furthermore, the presence of the oniticellines in the New World is hypothesized to be due to two relatively old dispersal events via Beringia and two relatively recent trans-Atlantic invasions of the Caribbean.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A, B Cladogram found using Piwe weighting with K values of 8-10. This topology is considered to be the best supported in this study. Bootstrap values above 50% found for nodes indicated. AOniticellini. BOnthophagini. * = no taxon image.
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Figure 1: A, B Cladogram found using Piwe weighting with K values of 8-10. This topology is considered to be the best supported in this study. Bootstrap values above 50% found for nodes indicated. AOniticellini. BOnthophagini. * = no taxon image.

Mentions: The hypothesis that the Oniticellini and Onthophagini constitute a monophyletic group is strongly supported by this study (Figs 1–5). No outgroup taxa were found within the ingroup in any of the analyses. Analysis of the unweighted data using parsimony produced a total of six trees (strict consensus with character support in Figs 4A, 5), each with a length of 825 steps, and overall CI and RI of 0.29 and 0.50, respectively. Alternative topologies in the step-like tree are due to two polytomies within the onthophagines, one located approximately in the middle of the topology involving alternate relationships of six taxa and the other located at the apex in four probable termite associated taxa. The Bayesian analysis shows unresolved clades near or at the base in both the Oniticellini and the Onthophagini (Fig. 2).


Phylogeny of the Oniticellini and Onthophagini dung beetles (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae) from morphological evidence.

Philips TK - Zookeys (2016)

A, B Cladogram found using Piwe weighting with K values of 8-10. This topology is considered to be the best supported in this study. Bootstrap values above 50% found for nodes indicated. AOniticellini. BOnthophagini. * = no taxon image.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829968&req=5

Figure 1: A, B Cladogram found using Piwe weighting with K values of 8-10. This topology is considered to be the best supported in this study. Bootstrap values above 50% found for nodes indicated. AOniticellini. BOnthophagini. * = no taxon image.
Mentions: The hypothesis that the Oniticellini and Onthophagini constitute a monophyletic group is strongly supported by this study (Figs 1–5). No outgroup taxa were found within the ingroup in any of the analyses. Analysis of the unweighted data using parsimony produced a total of six trees (strict consensus with character support in Figs 4A, 5), each with a length of 825 steps, and overall CI and RI of 0.29 and 0.50, respectively. Alternative topologies in the step-like tree are due to two polytomies within the onthophagines, one located approximately in the middle of the topology involving alternate relationships of six taxa and the other located at the apex in four probable termite associated taxa. The Bayesian analysis shows unresolved clades near or at the base in both the Oniticellini and the Onthophagini (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: The monophyly and sister relationship of both tribes was found using Bayesian and parsimony analyses with heavily to moderately weighted data.The genus Liatongus is paraphyletic, while strong support was found for monophyly of the Madagascan genus, Helictopleurus.The phylogenetic analysis supports an African origin for the two tribes, with a relatively early age for the split of the Madagascar helictopleurines from the remaining oniticellines via dispersal.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Systematics and Evolution Laboratory, Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101, USA; Correspondence: Dr. T. K. Philips, Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd. #11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080, USA.

ABSTRACT
A phylogenetic study was conducted to hypothesize relationships of most of the genera of the Oniticellini and Onthophagini for the first time using morphological characters from a diverse array of external and internal sclerites. The monophyly and sister relationship of both tribes was found using Bayesian and parsimony analyses with heavily to moderately weighted data. An alternative hypothesis based on parsimony analyses of unweighted or slightly weighted data show a paraphyletic Oniticellini without the Onthophagini, although recognition of the subtribe Helictopleurina as a tribe would eliminate non-monophyly. Of the three Oniticellini subtribes, the Helictopleurina and Drepanocerina are monophyletic. There is no support for the monophyly of the Oniticellina or the Onthophagini subtribe Alloscelina, as currently defined. The genus Liatongus is paraphyletic, while strong support was found for monophyly of the Madagascan genus, Helictopleurus. The genus Onthophagus is never monophyletic in any analysis performed. Two new subtribes are also proposed: Liatongina subtr. n. including the genus Liatongus and Attavicina subtr. n. including the genera Attavicinus and Paroniticellus. Topological evidence shows that the ancestral oniticellines and onthophagines were all coprophagous with alternative food sources evolving relatively recently. Both myrmecophily and termitophily probably evolved only once in the onthophagines. The phylogenetic analysis supports an African origin for the two tribes, with a relatively early age for the split of the Madagascar helictopleurines from the remaining oniticellines via dispersal. Furthermore, the presence of the oniticellines in the New World is hypothesized to be due to two relatively old dispersal events via Beringia and two relatively recent trans-Atlantic invasions of the Caribbean.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus