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Highly Stretchable Non-volatile Nylon Thread Memory.

Kang TK - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: The NT memory appears to have typical write-once-read-many-times characteristics.The results show that an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 10(3) is maintained for a retention time of 10(6)s.The actual integration of the knitted NT memories into textiles will enable new design possibilities for low-cost and large-area e-textile memory applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Integration of electronic elements into textiles, to afford e-textiles, can provide an ideal platform for the development of lightweight, thin, flexible, and stretchable e-textiles. This approach will enable us to meet the demands of the rapidly growing market of wearable-electronics on arbitrary non-conventional substrates. However the actual integration of the e-textiles that undergo mechanical deformations during both assembly and daily wear or satisfy the requirements of the low-end applications, remains a challenge. Resistive memory elements can also be fabricated onto a nylon thread (NT) for e-textile applications. In this study, a simple dip-and-dry process using graphene-

Pedot: PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate) ink is proposed for the fabrication of a highly stretchable non-volatile NT memory. The NT memory appears to have typical write-once-read-many-times characteristics. The results show that an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 10(3) is maintained for a retention time of 10(6)s. Furthermore, a highly stretchable strain and a long-term digital-storage capability of the ON-OFF-ON states are demonstrated in the NT memory. The actual integration of the knitted NT memories into textiles will enable new design possibilities for low-cost and large-area e-textile memory applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Electrical characteristics of the NT memory.(a) I-V characteristics of the NT memory with a length of 3 cm appearing in three states. (b) Log-log scale and fitting lines of the I-V data are plotted and calculated to understand the possible mechanisms.
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f2: Electrical characteristics of the NT memory.(a) I-V characteristics of the NT memory with a length of 3 cm appearing in three states. (b) Log-log scale and fitting lines of the I-V data are plotted and calculated to understand the possible mechanisms.

Mentions: Figure 2a shows the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the non-volatile NT memory, which contains three states: initial state, low-resistance state (LRS), and high-resistance state (HRS). First, all the virgin NT memories were found to be almost in the initial state. The initial state was defined as a resistance value without applied strains. When the applied voltage was swept from 0 to 4 V, there was a marked increase in the current. The initial state of the NT memory was switched to the LRS, which is denoted as the ON state. This switching behavior from the initial state to the LRS is called the forming process. When the applied voltage was swept in the opposite direction, from 4 to 0 V, the NT memory was switched possibly from the LRS to the initial state. A pure PEDOT:PSS NT memory was also fabricated using the same two-step dip-and-dry process. Compared to the NT memory dipped in the graphene-PEDOT:PSS ink, the forming process was not observed in the pure PEDOT:PSS NT memory (Supplementary Fig. S3). This implies that the multilayer graphene flakes randomly distributed in the PEDOT:PSS may act as charge-trapping sites34. In addition, more NT memory samples in Fig. 2a have demonstrated the resistive switching behavior from the initial state to the LRS, i.e., the forming process. The multilayer graphene flakes acting as charge-trapping sites explain this forming process. After sweeping one or two cycles (from 0 to 4 V and 4 to 0 V), the NT memory can remain in the LRS due to the formation of conductive filaments and there appears to be a stable ON state. No marked difference has occurred yet in the I-V characteristics, between the samples in the ON state. Similar resistive switching behaviors were observed for the negative voltage sweep (Supplementary Fig. S4). Then, by sweeping a high voltage from 3 to 10 V, the NT memory was switched from the LRS to the HRS. It was shown to be in a stable HRS, denoted as the OFF state. This switching behavior from the LRS to the HRS is called the writing process. Even though the applied voltage was swept again from 0 to 10 V, the NT memory remained in the HRS (OFF) and appeared to have typical WORM characteristics. This implies that the permanent HRS can be attributed to the phase-segregation mechanism of resistive switching in the PEDOT:PSS, which is caused by the high switching current1835. To understand the resistive switching mechanism in a better manner, the previous I-V curves were plotted in a log-log scale, as shown in Fig. 2b. These I-V characteristics for the initial state with three different samples at low voltages, and at the LRS (ON), can be explained by ohmic conduction: I   V. Furthermore, the LRS (ON) obeys the well-known Ohm’s law, further providing evidence for the formation of conductive filaments. Similarly, for the initial state with three NT memory samples measured at high voltages, the I-V conduction can be attributed to a trap-controlled space-charge-limited current, I   V3, which is due to the charge trapping in the multilayer graphene flakes34. Then, the HRS current dominated by the insulating PSS in the PEDOT:PSS can be described using the following tunneling model3637:


Highly Stretchable Non-volatile Nylon Thread Memory.

Kang TK - Sci Rep (2016)

Electrical characteristics of the NT memory.(a) I-V characteristics of the NT memory with a length of 3 cm appearing in three states. (b) Log-log scale and fitting lines of the I-V data are plotted and calculated to understand the possible mechanisms.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829934&req=5

f2: Electrical characteristics of the NT memory.(a) I-V characteristics of the NT memory with a length of 3 cm appearing in three states. (b) Log-log scale and fitting lines of the I-V data are plotted and calculated to understand the possible mechanisms.
Mentions: Figure 2a shows the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the non-volatile NT memory, which contains three states: initial state, low-resistance state (LRS), and high-resistance state (HRS). First, all the virgin NT memories were found to be almost in the initial state. The initial state was defined as a resistance value without applied strains. When the applied voltage was swept from 0 to 4 V, there was a marked increase in the current. The initial state of the NT memory was switched to the LRS, which is denoted as the ON state. This switching behavior from the initial state to the LRS is called the forming process. When the applied voltage was swept in the opposite direction, from 4 to 0 V, the NT memory was switched possibly from the LRS to the initial state. A pure PEDOT:PSS NT memory was also fabricated using the same two-step dip-and-dry process. Compared to the NT memory dipped in the graphene-PEDOT:PSS ink, the forming process was not observed in the pure PEDOT:PSS NT memory (Supplementary Fig. S3). This implies that the multilayer graphene flakes randomly distributed in the PEDOT:PSS may act as charge-trapping sites34. In addition, more NT memory samples in Fig. 2a have demonstrated the resistive switching behavior from the initial state to the LRS, i.e., the forming process. The multilayer graphene flakes acting as charge-trapping sites explain this forming process. After sweeping one or two cycles (from 0 to 4 V and 4 to 0 V), the NT memory can remain in the LRS due to the formation of conductive filaments and there appears to be a stable ON state. No marked difference has occurred yet in the I-V characteristics, between the samples in the ON state. Similar resistive switching behaviors were observed for the negative voltage sweep (Supplementary Fig. S4). Then, by sweeping a high voltage from 3 to 10 V, the NT memory was switched from the LRS to the HRS. It was shown to be in a stable HRS, denoted as the OFF state. This switching behavior from the LRS to the HRS is called the writing process. Even though the applied voltage was swept again from 0 to 10 V, the NT memory remained in the HRS (OFF) and appeared to have typical WORM characteristics. This implies that the permanent HRS can be attributed to the phase-segregation mechanism of resistive switching in the PEDOT:PSS, which is caused by the high switching current1835. To understand the resistive switching mechanism in a better manner, the previous I-V curves were plotted in a log-log scale, as shown in Fig. 2b. These I-V characteristics for the initial state with three different samples at low voltages, and at the LRS (ON), can be explained by ohmic conduction: I   V. Furthermore, the LRS (ON) obeys the well-known Ohm’s law, further providing evidence for the formation of conductive filaments. Similarly, for the initial state with three NT memory samples measured at high voltages, the I-V conduction can be attributed to a trap-controlled space-charge-limited current, I   V3, which is due to the charge trapping in the multilayer graphene flakes34. Then, the HRS current dominated by the insulating PSS in the PEDOT:PSS can be described using the following tunneling model3637:

Bottom Line: The NT memory appears to have typical write-once-read-many-times characteristics.The results show that an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 10(3) is maintained for a retention time of 10(6)s.The actual integration of the knitted NT memories into textiles will enable new design possibilities for low-cost and large-area e-textile memory applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Integration of electronic elements into textiles, to afford e-textiles, can provide an ideal platform for the development of lightweight, thin, flexible, and stretchable e-textiles. This approach will enable us to meet the demands of the rapidly growing market of wearable-electronics on arbitrary non-conventional substrates. However the actual integration of the e-textiles that undergo mechanical deformations during both assembly and daily wear or satisfy the requirements of the low-end applications, remains a challenge. Resistive memory elements can also be fabricated onto a nylon thread (NT) for e-textile applications. In this study, a simple dip-and-dry process using graphene-

Pedot: PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate) ink is proposed for the fabrication of a highly stretchable non-volatile NT memory. The NT memory appears to have typical write-once-read-many-times characteristics. The results show that an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 10(3) is maintained for a retention time of 10(6)s. Furthermore, a highly stretchable strain and a long-term digital-storage capability of the ON-OFF-ON states are demonstrated in the NT memory. The actual integration of the knitted NT memories into textiles will enable new design possibilities for low-cost and large-area e-textile memory applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus