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Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

Yan J, Wang G, Sui Y, Wang M, Zhang L - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change.The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage.We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303, China.

ABSTRACT
Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

No MeSH data available.


Nectar volume and sucrose concentration of Quisqualis indica flowers in relation to temperature and humidity.Data are expressed as means ± standard error.
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f3: Nectar volume and sucrose concentration of Quisqualis indica flowers in relation to temperature and humidity.Data are expressed as means ± standard error.

Mentions: The flowers produced nectar continuously in the white floral stage from anthesis until 08:00 in the following morning (3.7 ± 1.8 μl, N = 15) (Fig. 3). Later, there was a sharp decline in nectar volume, when floral colour changed from pink to red and secretion stopped at approximately 14:00. Concurrently, the nectar sucrose concentration decreased gradually from 12.6 to 9.0 mol L−1. Variations in air temperature and relative humidity on flowering days are also shown in Fig. 3.


Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

Yan J, Wang G, Sui Y, Wang M, Zhang L - Sci Rep (2016)

Nectar volume and sucrose concentration of Quisqualis indica flowers in relation to temperature and humidity.Data are expressed as means ± standard error.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829896&req=5

f3: Nectar volume and sucrose concentration of Quisqualis indica flowers in relation to temperature and humidity.Data are expressed as means ± standard error.
Mentions: The flowers produced nectar continuously in the white floral stage from anthesis until 08:00 in the following morning (3.7 ± 1.8 μl, N = 15) (Fig. 3). Later, there was a sharp decline in nectar volume, when floral colour changed from pink to red and secretion stopped at approximately 14:00. Concurrently, the nectar sucrose concentration decreased gradually from 12.6 to 9.0 mol L−1. Variations in air temperature and relative humidity on flowering days are also shown in Fig. 3.

Bottom Line: Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change.The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage.We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303, China.

ABSTRACT
Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

No MeSH data available.