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A novel open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and properties for bone regeneration.

Cheng MQ, Wahafu T, Jiang GF, Liu W, Qiao YQ, Peng XC, Cheng T, Zhang XL, He G, Liu XY - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: The porosity and pore size can be easily, precisely and individually controlled, as well as the mechanical properties also can be regulated to be within the range of human cancellous bone by changing the orientation of pores without sacrifice the requisite porous structures.In vitro cell tests indicate that the scaffolds have good cytocompatibility and osteoblastic differentiation properties.In conclusion, a new method is introduced to develop an open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and mechanical properties, which has great potential clinical application for bone reconstruction in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233, China.

ABSTRACT
The traditional production methods of porous magnesium scaffolds are difficult to accurately control the pore morphologies and simultaneously obtain appropriate mechanical properties. In this work, two open-porous magnesium scaffolds with different pore size but in the nearly same porosity are successfully fabricated with high-purity Mg ingots through the titanium wire space holder (TWSH) method. The porosity and pore size can be easily, precisely and individually controlled, as well as the mechanical properties also can be regulated to be within the range of human cancellous bone by changing the orientation of pores without sacrifice the requisite porous structures. In vitro cell tests indicate that the scaffolds have good cytocompatibility and osteoblastic differentiation properties. In vivo findings demonstrate that both scaffolds exhibit acceptable inflammatory responses and can be almost fully degraded and replaced by newly formed bone. More importantly, under the same porosity, the scaffolds with larger pore size can promote early vascularization and up-regulate collagen type 1 and OPN expression, leading to higher bone mass and more mature bone formation. In conclusion, a new method is introduced to develop an open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and mechanical properties, which has great potential clinical application for bone reconstruction in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Characterization of scaffolds and the newly formed bone by Micro-CT.(a) Micro-CT 2D (The red arrows refer to the newly formed bone) and 3D reconstruction models showing the status of new bone (white in color) response 16 weeks after surgery; (b) Quantitative analysis of bone volume fraction (BV/TV),trabecular number (TN) and trabecular thickness. *Denotes a significant difference compared to the 250-PMg scaffold (p < 0.05).
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f6: Characterization of scaffolds and the newly formed bone by Micro-CT.(a) Micro-CT 2D (The red arrows refer to the newly formed bone) and 3D reconstruction models showing the status of new bone (white in color) response 16 weeks after surgery; (b) Quantitative analysis of bone volume fraction (BV/TV),trabecular number (TN) and trabecular thickness. *Denotes a significant difference compared to the 250-PMg scaffold (p < 0.05).

Mentions: Micro-CT was used to observe possible changes in the residual scaffold’s volume and density, as well as bone formation adjacent to the degrading magnesium scaffolds. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional images (Fig. 6a) reveal that the volumes and densities of both the scaffolds decreased after 8 weeks of implantation. After 16 weeks of implantation, almost all the implanted scaffolds were vanished and replaced by newly formed bone. In addition, it must be point out that the 250-PMg scaffold seems degrade slowly than the 400-PMg scaffold. As for the new bone formation, on the 400-PMg side, significantly more regenerated bone was presented than on the 250-PMg side at both time points, meanwhile, the bone directly neighboring or in the implant sites shows a higher density. Consistently, the quantitative assessments of bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (TN) and trabecular thickness (TH) were determined in a sequence of 400-PMg >250-PMg at both time points (Fig. 6b), indicating a more densely packed bone structure around the 400-PMg scaffold. Furthermore, No gas cavities were found at both time points in the two groups.


A novel open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and properties for bone regeneration.

Cheng MQ, Wahafu T, Jiang GF, Liu W, Qiao YQ, Peng XC, Cheng T, Zhang XL, He G, Liu XY - Sci Rep (2016)

Characterization of scaffolds and the newly formed bone by Micro-CT.(a) Micro-CT 2D (The red arrows refer to the newly formed bone) and 3D reconstruction models showing the status of new bone (white in color) response 16 weeks after surgery; (b) Quantitative analysis of bone volume fraction (BV/TV),trabecular number (TN) and trabecular thickness. *Denotes a significant difference compared to the 250-PMg scaffold (p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829853&req=5

f6: Characterization of scaffolds and the newly formed bone by Micro-CT.(a) Micro-CT 2D (The red arrows refer to the newly formed bone) and 3D reconstruction models showing the status of new bone (white in color) response 16 weeks after surgery; (b) Quantitative analysis of bone volume fraction (BV/TV),trabecular number (TN) and trabecular thickness. *Denotes a significant difference compared to the 250-PMg scaffold (p < 0.05).
Mentions: Micro-CT was used to observe possible changes in the residual scaffold’s volume and density, as well as bone formation adjacent to the degrading magnesium scaffolds. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional images (Fig. 6a) reveal that the volumes and densities of both the scaffolds decreased after 8 weeks of implantation. After 16 weeks of implantation, almost all the implanted scaffolds were vanished and replaced by newly formed bone. In addition, it must be point out that the 250-PMg scaffold seems degrade slowly than the 400-PMg scaffold. As for the new bone formation, on the 400-PMg side, significantly more regenerated bone was presented than on the 250-PMg side at both time points, meanwhile, the bone directly neighboring or in the implant sites shows a higher density. Consistently, the quantitative assessments of bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (TN) and trabecular thickness (TH) were determined in a sequence of 400-PMg >250-PMg at both time points (Fig. 6b), indicating a more densely packed bone structure around the 400-PMg scaffold. Furthermore, No gas cavities were found at both time points in the two groups.

Bottom Line: The porosity and pore size can be easily, precisely and individually controlled, as well as the mechanical properties also can be regulated to be within the range of human cancellous bone by changing the orientation of pores without sacrifice the requisite porous structures.In vitro cell tests indicate that the scaffolds have good cytocompatibility and osteoblastic differentiation properties.In conclusion, a new method is introduced to develop an open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and mechanical properties, which has great potential clinical application for bone reconstruction in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233, China.

ABSTRACT
The traditional production methods of porous magnesium scaffolds are difficult to accurately control the pore morphologies and simultaneously obtain appropriate mechanical properties. In this work, two open-porous magnesium scaffolds with different pore size but in the nearly same porosity are successfully fabricated with high-purity Mg ingots through the titanium wire space holder (TWSH) method. The porosity and pore size can be easily, precisely and individually controlled, as well as the mechanical properties also can be regulated to be within the range of human cancellous bone by changing the orientation of pores without sacrifice the requisite porous structures. In vitro cell tests indicate that the scaffolds have good cytocompatibility and osteoblastic differentiation properties. In vivo findings demonstrate that both scaffolds exhibit acceptable inflammatory responses and can be almost fully degraded and replaced by newly formed bone. More importantly, under the same porosity, the scaffolds with larger pore size can promote early vascularization and up-regulate collagen type 1 and OPN expression, leading to higher bone mass and more mature bone formation. In conclusion, a new method is introduced to develop an open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and mechanical properties, which has great potential clinical application for bone reconstruction in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus