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The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels.

Liu H, Guo X, Gooneratne R, Lai R, Zeng C, Zhan F, Wang W - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts.Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous.Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Fisheries, Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison in the relative abundance of PICRUSt-generated functional profile of gut microbiota among four trophic levels.(A) Heat map shows the relative abundance changes in fishes with four trophic levels. (B) Significant differences in gene categories at level 3 (t-test, P < 0.05) between the herbivorous and the carnivorous.
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f6: Comparison in the relative abundance of PICRUSt-generated functional profile of gut microbiota among four trophic levels.(A) Heat map shows the relative abundance changes in fishes with four trophic levels. (B) Significant differences in gene categories at level 3 (t-test, P < 0.05) between the herbivorous and the carnivorous.

Mentions: PICRUSt was performed to predict the fish gut microbiome functions, which showed that four fish species in different trophic levels exhibited similar gene functions at level 2, including glycan, protein, energy and amino acid metabolism, but with some difference in abundance (Fig. 6A). The abundance of carbohydrate-related metabolism such as starch and sucrose, fructose and mannose, galactose and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis were higher in herbivorous and omnivorous fishes than in carnivorous and filter-feeding fish species. Moreover, nine gene categories showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 by t-test) between the herbivorous and the carnivorous as shown in Fig. 6B. This analysis allowed us to better understand the relationship between the host trophic level and metabolic capacity.


The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels.

Liu H, Guo X, Gooneratne R, Lai R, Zeng C, Zhan F, Wang W - Sci Rep (2016)

Comparison in the relative abundance of PICRUSt-generated functional profile of gut microbiota among four trophic levels.(A) Heat map shows the relative abundance changes in fishes with four trophic levels. (B) Significant differences in gene categories at level 3 (t-test, P < 0.05) between the herbivorous and the carnivorous.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829839&req=5

f6: Comparison in the relative abundance of PICRUSt-generated functional profile of gut microbiota among four trophic levels.(A) Heat map shows the relative abundance changes in fishes with four trophic levels. (B) Significant differences in gene categories at level 3 (t-test, P < 0.05) between the herbivorous and the carnivorous.
Mentions: PICRUSt was performed to predict the fish gut microbiome functions, which showed that four fish species in different trophic levels exhibited similar gene functions at level 2, including glycan, protein, energy and amino acid metabolism, but with some difference in abundance (Fig. 6A). The abundance of carbohydrate-related metabolism such as starch and sucrose, fructose and mannose, galactose and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis were higher in herbivorous and omnivorous fishes than in carnivorous and filter-feeding fish species. Moreover, nine gene categories showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 by t-test) between the herbivorous and the carnivorous as shown in Fig. 6B. This analysis allowed us to better understand the relationship between the host trophic level and metabolic capacity.

Bottom Line: Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts.Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous.Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Fisheries, Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus