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Electrocortical Dynamics in Children with a Language-Learning Impairment Before and After Audiovisual Training.

Heim S, Choudhury N, Benasich AA - Brain Topogr (2015)

Bottom Line: A non-treatment group of children with typical language development (n = 12) was also assessed twice at a comparable time interval.The results indicated that the LLI group exhibited considerable gains on standardized measures of language.These changes suggested enhanced discrimination of deviant from standard tone sequences in widespread cortices, in LLI children after training.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University-Newark, 197 University Avenue, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA. sabine.heim@rutgers.edu.

ABSTRACT
Detecting and discriminating subtle and rapid sound changes in the speech environment is a fundamental prerequisite of language processing, and deficits in this ability have frequently been observed in individuals with language-learning impairments (LLI). One approach to studying associations between dysfunctional auditory dynamics and LLI, is to implement a training protocol tapping into this potential while quantifying pre- and post-intervention status. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are highly sensitive to the brain correlates of these dynamic changes and are therefore ideally suited for examining hypotheses regarding dysfunctional auditory processes. In this study, ERP measurements to rapid tone sequences (standard and deviant tone pairs) along with behavioral language testing were performed in 6- to 9-year-old LLI children (n = 21) before and after audiovisual training. A non-treatment group of children with typical language development (n = 12) was also assessed twice at a comparable time interval. The results indicated that the LLI group exhibited considerable gains on standardized measures of language. In terms of ERPs, we found evidence of changes in the LLI group specifically at the level of the P2 component, later than 250 ms after the onset of the second stimulus in the deviant tone pair. These changes suggested enhanced discrimination of deviant from standard tone sequences in widespread cortices, in LLI children after training.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Grand mean CSD difference waveforms [∆ (deviant − standard)] over a representative group of fronto-central sensors, including Fcz and their posterior neighbors 5 and 55, at Visit 1 (solid lines) and Visit 2 (dashed lines) for the two groups in the study, 12 children with TLD (gray lines) and 21 children with LLI (black lines). The bottom abscissa indicates the time scale with respect to the first tone in a doublet, the top abscissa the time scale with respect to the second tone. Children with LLI showed a delayed difference wave in the downward slope of the P2 post-intervention, with latencies at Visit 2 and Visit 1 amounting to 284 and 224 ms, respectively, following onset of the second tone in a pair. No systematic latency change evinced in the TLD group
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Fig7: Grand mean CSD difference waveforms [∆ (deviant − standard)] over a representative group of fronto-central sensors, including Fcz and their posterior neighbors 5 and 55, at Visit 1 (solid lines) and Visit 2 (dashed lines) for the two groups in the study, 12 children with TLD (gray lines) and 21 children with LLI (black lines). The bottom abscissa indicates the time scale with respect to the first tone in a doublet, the top abscissa the time scale with respect to the second tone. Children with LLI showed a delayed difference wave in the downward slope of the P2 post-intervention, with latencies at Visit 2 and Visit 1 amounting to 284 and 224 ms, respectively, following onset of the second tone in a pair. No systematic latency change evinced in the TLD group

Mentions: Figure 7 illustrates the CSD difference waveforms averaged across a representative group of fronto-central sensors, including electrode site Fcz and their nearest posterior neighbors 55 and 5. Jackknife t tests conducted for the latency of peaks (defined as the time point when the voltage reached 50 % of peak amplitude) in the difference waveforms [∆ (deviant − standard)] showed that the difference wave in the P2 range (peaking around 200 ms after the second tone) was significantly delayed only in the LLI group, when comparing Visit 1 and Visit 2. As evident in Fig. 2, this effect was reflective of the downward slope of the P2 being significantly extended in time, but only for the deviant stimulus, at Visit 2, and in the LLI group: The 50 % amplitude point of the downward slope of the resulting difference wave in the P2 range was 284 ms at Visit 2 and 224 ms at Visit 1, with latencies relative to the onset of the second stimulus of a tone pair, t(20) = 4.67, p < 0.001. No systematic latency change was observed for any of the other components, or in the TLD group.Fig. 7


Electrocortical Dynamics in Children with a Language-Learning Impairment Before and After Audiovisual Training.

Heim S, Choudhury N, Benasich AA - Brain Topogr (2015)

Grand mean CSD difference waveforms [∆ (deviant − standard)] over a representative group of fronto-central sensors, including Fcz and their posterior neighbors 5 and 55, at Visit 1 (solid lines) and Visit 2 (dashed lines) for the two groups in the study, 12 children with TLD (gray lines) and 21 children with LLI (black lines). The bottom abscissa indicates the time scale with respect to the first tone in a doublet, the top abscissa the time scale with respect to the second tone. Children with LLI showed a delayed difference wave in the downward slope of the P2 post-intervention, with latencies at Visit 2 and Visit 1 amounting to 284 and 224 ms, respectively, following onset of the second tone in a pair. No systematic latency change evinced in the TLD group
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829628&req=5

Fig7: Grand mean CSD difference waveforms [∆ (deviant − standard)] over a representative group of fronto-central sensors, including Fcz and their posterior neighbors 5 and 55, at Visit 1 (solid lines) and Visit 2 (dashed lines) for the two groups in the study, 12 children with TLD (gray lines) and 21 children with LLI (black lines). The bottom abscissa indicates the time scale with respect to the first tone in a doublet, the top abscissa the time scale with respect to the second tone. Children with LLI showed a delayed difference wave in the downward slope of the P2 post-intervention, with latencies at Visit 2 and Visit 1 amounting to 284 and 224 ms, respectively, following onset of the second tone in a pair. No systematic latency change evinced in the TLD group
Mentions: Figure 7 illustrates the CSD difference waveforms averaged across a representative group of fronto-central sensors, including electrode site Fcz and their nearest posterior neighbors 55 and 5. Jackknife t tests conducted for the latency of peaks (defined as the time point when the voltage reached 50 % of peak amplitude) in the difference waveforms [∆ (deviant − standard)] showed that the difference wave in the P2 range (peaking around 200 ms after the second tone) was significantly delayed only in the LLI group, when comparing Visit 1 and Visit 2. As evident in Fig. 2, this effect was reflective of the downward slope of the P2 being significantly extended in time, but only for the deviant stimulus, at Visit 2, and in the LLI group: The 50 % amplitude point of the downward slope of the resulting difference wave in the P2 range was 284 ms at Visit 2 and 224 ms at Visit 1, with latencies relative to the onset of the second stimulus of a tone pair, t(20) = 4.67, p < 0.001. No systematic latency change was observed for any of the other components, or in the TLD group.Fig. 7

Bottom Line: A non-treatment group of children with typical language development (n = 12) was also assessed twice at a comparable time interval.The results indicated that the LLI group exhibited considerable gains on standardized measures of language.These changes suggested enhanced discrimination of deviant from standard tone sequences in widespread cortices, in LLI children after training.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University-Newark, 197 University Avenue, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA. sabine.heim@rutgers.edu.

ABSTRACT
Detecting and discriminating subtle and rapid sound changes in the speech environment is a fundamental prerequisite of language processing, and deficits in this ability have frequently been observed in individuals with language-learning impairments (LLI). One approach to studying associations between dysfunctional auditory dynamics and LLI, is to implement a training protocol tapping into this potential while quantifying pre- and post-intervention status. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are highly sensitive to the brain correlates of these dynamic changes and are therefore ideally suited for examining hypotheses regarding dysfunctional auditory processes. In this study, ERP measurements to rapid tone sequences (standard and deviant tone pairs) along with behavioral language testing were performed in 6- to 9-year-old LLI children (n = 21) before and after audiovisual training. A non-treatment group of children with typical language development (n = 12) was also assessed twice at a comparable time interval. The results indicated that the LLI group exhibited considerable gains on standardized measures of language. In terms of ERPs, we found evidence of changes in the LLI group specifically at the level of the P2 component, later than 250 ms after the onset of the second stimulus in the deviant tone pair. These changes suggested enhanced discrimination of deviant from standard tone sequences in widespread cortices, in LLI children after training.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus