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Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus.

Foo F, King-Stephens D, Weber P, Laxer K, Parvizi J, Knight RT - Front Hum Neurosci (2016)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres.We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites.In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biophysics Graduate Group, University of CaliforniaBerkeley, CA, USA; Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of CaliforniaBerkeley, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spatial distribution of electrodes with differential responses to consonant and dissonant chords in left and right lateral STG. Electrodes located within the STG for all subjects are shown superimposed on a model brain for each hemisphere. Gray electrodes show minimal or no significant γhigh (70–150 Hz) activity in response to any chord type; blue electrodes show no difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p > 0.05); red electrodes show increased γhigh activity in response to dissonant chords than consonant chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p < 0.05); yellow electrodes with a red border show greater γhigh activity in response to dissonant type II chords than dissonant type I chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p < 0.05). Significant electrodes in both Dissonant > Consonant and Dissonant II > Dissonant I conditions after FDR multiple comparisons correction of q = 0.05 are marked with a *, and significant electrodes in only the Dissonant > Consonant condition are marked with a #. Onset and duration of FDR-corrected significant increases in γhigh activity vary per electrode and is detailed in Table 2. Each shape denotes an individual subject. P – posterior, A – anterior.
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Figure 2: Spatial distribution of electrodes with differential responses to consonant and dissonant chords in left and right lateral STG. Electrodes located within the STG for all subjects are shown superimposed on a model brain for each hemisphere. Gray electrodes show minimal or no significant γhigh (70–150 Hz) activity in response to any chord type; blue electrodes show no difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p > 0.05); red electrodes show increased γhigh activity in response to dissonant chords than consonant chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p < 0.05); yellow electrodes with a red border show greater γhigh activity in response to dissonant type II chords than dissonant type I chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p < 0.05). Significant electrodes in both Dissonant > Consonant and Dissonant II > Dissonant I conditions after FDR multiple comparisons correction of q = 0.05 are marked with a *, and significant electrodes in only the Dissonant > Consonant condition are marked with a #. Onset and duration of FDR-corrected significant increases in γhigh activity vary per electrode and is detailed in Table 2. Each shape denotes an individual subject. P – posterior, A – anterior.

Mentions: Analysis of significant STG sites in both hemispheres revealed two response types: one that showed increased γhigh activity in response to dissonant chords than consonant chords (electrodes denoted in red; Wilcoxon rank-sum p < 0.05 for each electrode), and one that showed no difference in γhigh activity between chord types (electrodes denoted in blue; Wilcoxon rank-sum p > 0.05 for each electrode; Figure 2). Of the 16 electrodes denoted in red, 14 remained significant after FDR correction for multiple comparisons. For subjects S2, S3 and S8, similar cortical responses to consonant and dissonant chords were observed irrespective of the order of stimuli presented. We also observed a clear spatial organization in the right STG, where cortical sites exhibiting greater γhigh activity in response to dissonant chords (red) were located anterior to sites with no difference in γhigh activity (blue). A significant effect of electrode position in the y-dimension [χ2(1) = 8.6, p = 0.003] and in the z-dimension [χ2(1) = 7.59, p = 0.006] of MNI space was observed. This spatial distinction was not observed in the left STG [y-dimension: χ2(1) = 0.18, p = 0.67; z-dimension: χ2(1) = 0.41, p = 0.52].


Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus.

Foo F, King-Stephens D, Weber P, Laxer K, Parvizi J, Knight RT - Front Hum Neurosci (2016)

Spatial distribution of electrodes with differential responses to consonant and dissonant chords in left and right lateral STG. Electrodes located within the STG for all subjects are shown superimposed on a model brain for each hemisphere. Gray electrodes show minimal or no significant γhigh (70–150 Hz) activity in response to any chord type; blue electrodes show no difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p > 0.05); red electrodes show increased γhigh activity in response to dissonant chords than consonant chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p < 0.05); yellow electrodes with a red border show greater γhigh activity in response to dissonant type II chords than dissonant type I chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p < 0.05). Significant electrodes in both Dissonant > Consonant and Dissonant II > Dissonant I conditions after FDR multiple comparisons correction of q = 0.05 are marked with a *, and significant electrodes in only the Dissonant > Consonant condition are marked with a #. Onset and duration of FDR-corrected significant increases in γhigh activity vary per electrode and is detailed in Table 2. Each shape denotes an individual subject. P – posterior, A – anterior.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 2: Spatial distribution of electrodes with differential responses to consonant and dissonant chords in left and right lateral STG. Electrodes located within the STG for all subjects are shown superimposed on a model brain for each hemisphere. Gray electrodes show minimal or no significant γhigh (70–150 Hz) activity in response to any chord type; blue electrodes show no difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p > 0.05); red electrodes show increased γhigh activity in response to dissonant chords than consonant chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p < 0.05); yellow electrodes with a red border show greater γhigh activity in response to dissonant type II chords than dissonant type I chords (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p < 0.05). Significant electrodes in both Dissonant > Consonant and Dissonant II > Dissonant I conditions after FDR multiple comparisons correction of q = 0.05 are marked with a *, and significant electrodes in only the Dissonant > Consonant condition are marked with a #. Onset and duration of FDR-corrected significant increases in γhigh activity vary per electrode and is detailed in Table 2. Each shape denotes an individual subject. P – posterior, A – anterior.
Mentions: Analysis of significant STG sites in both hemispheres revealed two response types: one that showed increased γhigh activity in response to dissonant chords than consonant chords (electrodes denoted in red; Wilcoxon rank-sum p < 0.05 for each electrode), and one that showed no difference in γhigh activity between chord types (electrodes denoted in blue; Wilcoxon rank-sum p > 0.05 for each electrode; Figure 2). Of the 16 electrodes denoted in red, 14 remained significant after FDR correction for multiple comparisons. For subjects S2, S3 and S8, similar cortical responses to consonant and dissonant chords were observed irrespective of the order of stimuli presented. We also observed a clear spatial organization in the right STG, where cortical sites exhibiting greater γhigh activity in response to dissonant chords (red) were located anterior to sites with no difference in γhigh activity (blue). A significant effect of electrode position in the y-dimension [χ2(1) = 8.6, p = 0.003] and in the z-dimension [χ2(1) = 7.59, p = 0.006] of MNI space was observed. This spatial distinction was not observed in the left STG [y-dimension: χ2(1) = 0.18, p = 0.67; z-dimension: χ2(1) = 0.41, p = 0.52].

Bottom Line: Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres.We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites.In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biophysics Graduate Group, University of CaliforniaBerkeley, CA, USA; Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of CaliforniaBerkeley, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus