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Shift in precipitation regime promotes interspecific hybridization of introduced Coffea species.

Gomez C, Despinoy M, Hamon S, Hamon P, Salmon D, Akaffou DS, Legnate H, de Kochko A, Mangeas M, Poncet V - Ecol Evol (2016)

Bottom Line: The three Coffea species encountered weak environmental suitability compared to their native ranges when introduced to New Caledonia, especially C. arabica and C. canephora.Flowering pattern in these Coffea species was shown to have a strong genetic component that determined the time between the triggering rain and anthesis (flower opening), specific to each species.However, a precipitation regime different from those in Africa was directly involved in generating partial flowering overlap between species and thus in allowing hybridization and interspecific gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRD UMR DIADE BP 64501 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5 France.

ABSTRACT
The frequency of plant species introductions has increased in a highly connected world, modifying species distribution patterns to include areas outside their natural ranges. These introductions provide the opportunity to gain new insight into the importance of flowering phenology as a component of adaptation to a new environment. Three Coffea species, C. arabica, C. canephora (Robusta), and C. liberica, native to intertropical Africa have been introduced to New Caledonia. On this archipelago, a secondary contact zone has been characterized where these species coexist, persist, and hybridize spontaneously. We investigated the impact of environmental changes undergone by each species following its introduction in New Caledonia on flowering phenology and overcoming reproductive barriers between sister species. We developed species distribution models and compared both environmental envelopes and climatic niches between native and introduced hybrid zones. Flowering phenology was monitored in a population in the hybrid zone along with temperature and precipitation sequences recorded at a nearby weather station. The extent and nature of hybridization events were characterized using chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers. The three Coffea species encountered weak environmental suitability compared to their native ranges when introduced to New Caledonia, especially C. arabica and C. canephora. The niche of the New Caledonia hybrid zone was significantly different from all three species' native niches based on identity tests (I Similarity and D Schoener's Similarity Indexes). This area appeared to exhibit intermediate conditions between the native conditions of the three species for temperature-related variables and divergent conditions for precipitation-related ones. Flowering pattern in these Coffea species was shown to have a strong genetic component that determined the time between the triggering rain and anthesis (flower opening), specific to each species. However, a precipitation regime different from those in Africa was directly involved in generating partial flowering overlap between species and thus in allowing hybridization and interspecific gene flow. Interspecific hybrids accounted for 4% of the mature individuals in the sympatric population and occurred between each pair of species with various level of introgression. Adaptation to new environmental conditions following introduction of Coffea species to New Caledonia has resulted in a secondary contact between three related species, which would not have happened in their native ranges, leading to hybridization and gene flow.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Time sequence of flowering patterns of the three Coffea species over a flowering season in Sarraméa. Flowering of Coffea canephora, C. liberica and C. arabica following rains during the blooming season at Sarraméa. Rainfall dates are indicated in S1–S3. Flowering stages 4 (anthesis, effective pollen and receptive style) and 5 (receptive style) are represented for the three flowering periods as validated on c. 10 individuals per species. Temperature and precipitation sequences were recorded by a nearby weather station (Davis Vantage Pro2, Davis Instruments).
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ece32055-fig-0003: Time sequence of flowering patterns of the three Coffea species over a flowering season in Sarraméa. Flowering of Coffea canephora, C. liberica and C. arabica following rains during the blooming season at Sarraméa. Rainfall dates are indicated in S1–S3. Flowering stages 4 (anthesis, effective pollen and receptive style) and 5 (receptive style) are represented for the three flowering periods as validated on c. 10 individuals per species. Temperature and precipitation sequences were recorded by a nearby weather station (Davis Vantage Pro2, Davis Instruments).

Mentions: Flowering phenology was surveyed on 10 individual plants of each species within the Sarraméa population, while temperature and precipitation sequences were recorded from a nearby weather station. The general time sequence of flowering events over the study flowering season is presented in Figure 3.


Shift in precipitation regime promotes interspecific hybridization of introduced Coffea species.

Gomez C, Despinoy M, Hamon S, Hamon P, Salmon D, Akaffou DS, Legnate H, de Kochko A, Mangeas M, Poncet V - Ecol Evol (2016)

Time sequence of flowering patterns of the three Coffea species over a flowering season in Sarraméa. Flowering of Coffea canephora, C. liberica and C. arabica following rains during the blooming season at Sarraméa. Rainfall dates are indicated in S1–S3. Flowering stages 4 (anthesis, effective pollen and receptive style) and 5 (receptive style) are represented for the three flowering periods as validated on c. 10 individuals per species. Temperature and precipitation sequences were recorded by a nearby weather station (Davis Vantage Pro2, Davis Instruments).
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829533&req=5

ece32055-fig-0003: Time sequence of flowering patterns of the three Coffea species over a flowering season in Sarraméa. Flowering of Coffea canephora, C. liberica and C. arabica following rains during the blooming season at Sarraméa. Rainfall dates are indicated in S1–S3. Flowering stages 4 (anthesis, effective pollen and receptive style) and 5 (receptive style) are represented for the three flowering periods as validated on c. 10 individuals per species. Temperature and precipitation sequences were recorded by a nearby weather station (Davis Vantage Pro2, Davis Instruments).
Mentions: Flowering phenology was surveyed on 10 individual plants of each species within the Sarraméa population, while temperature and precipitation sequences were recorded from a nearby weather station. The general time sequence of flowering events over the study flowering season is presented in Figure 3.

Bottom Line: The three Coffea species encountered weak environmental suitability compared to their native ranges when introduced to New Caledonia, especially C. arabica and C. canephora.Flowering pattern in these Coffea species was shown to have a strong genetic component that determined the time between the triggering rain and anthesis (flower opening), specific to each species.However, a precipitation regime different from those in Africa was directly involved in generating partial flowering overlap between species and thus in allowing hybridization and interspecific gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRD UMR DIADE BP 64501 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5 France.

ABSTRACT
The frequency of plant species introductions has increased in a highly connected world, modifying species distribution patterns to include areas outside their natural ranges. These introductions provide the opportunity to gain new insight into the importance of flowering phenology as a component of adaptation to a new environment. Three Coffea species, C. arabica, C. canephora (Robusta), and C. liberica, native to intertropical Africa have been introduced to New Caledonia. On this archipelago, a secondary contact zone has been characterized where these species coexist, persist, and hybridize spontaneously. We investigated the impact of environmental changes undergone by each species following its introduction in New Caledonia on flowering phenology and overcoming reproductive barriers between sister species. We developed species distribution models and compared both environmental envelopes and climatic niches between native and introduced hybrid zones. Flowering phenology was monitored in a population in the hybrid zone along with temperature and precipitation sequences recorded at a nearby weather station. The extent and nature of hybridization events were characterized using chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers. The three Coffea species encountered weak environmental suitability compared to their native ranges when introduced to New Caledonia, especially C. arabica and C. canephora. The niche of the New Caledonia hybrid zone was significantly different from all three species' native niches based on identity tests (I Similarity and D Schoener's Similarity Indexes). This area appeared to exhibit intermediate conditions between the native conditions of the three species for temperature-related variables and divergent conditions for precipitation-related ones. Flowering pattern in these Coffea species was shown to have a strong genetic component that determined the time between the triggering rain and anthesis (flower opening), specific to each species. However, a precipitation regime different from those in Africa was directly involved in generating partial flowering overlap between species and thus in allowing hybridization and interspecific gene flow. Interspecific hybrids accounted for 4% of the mature individuals in the sympatric population and occurred between each pair of species with various level of introgression. Adaptation to new environmental conditions following introduction of Coffea species to New Caledonia has resulted in a secondary contact between three related species, which would not have happened in their native ranges, leading to hybridization and gene flow.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus