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Crawling towards a map of the brain.

Masullo L, Tripodi M - Elife (2016)

Bottom Line: State-of-the-art techniques reveal a simple circuit of neurons controls the muscle contractions that allow fruit fly larvae to crawl.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
State-of-the-art techniques reveal a simple circuit of neurons controls the muscle contractions that allow fruit fly larvae to crawl.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A neural circuit for crawling in fruit fly larvae.(A) The motor neurons (MN) in a given body segment trigger the contraction of abdominal muscles in that segment (orange). Two other neurons control each motor neuron: the A27h neuron (dark blue) activates the motor neuron, and the GDL neuron (light blue) inhibits the A27h neuron. The circuit formed by these three neurons also receives input from the brain (descending input), input from other segmental neurons (not shown) and feedback signals from muscle (somatosensory input). These three inputs are likely to modulate the speed of locomotion. (B) In order to generate a locomotion pattern such as crawling, it is essential to orchestrate the contraction of muscles along the body. During forward movement, the A27h neuron in a given segment is active and drives contraction of the corresponding muscles (black: active elements, white: inactive elements). It also activates the GDL neuron in the next segment, which inactivates the corresponding A27h neuron and prevents the muscles in this segment from contracting at the same time. Then, A27h activity in the first segment declines, which relieves the inhibition of A27h in the second segment and allows the muscles to contract. P → A: posterior (back) to anterior (front)
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fig1: A neural circuit for crawling in fruit fly larvae.(A) The motor neurons (MN) in a given body segment trigger the contraction of abdominal muscles in that segment (orange). Two other neurons control each motor neuron: the A27h neuron (dark blue) activates the motor neuron, and the GDL neuron (light blue) inhibits the A27h neuron. The circuit formed by these three neurons also receives input from the brain (descending input), input from other segmental neurons (not shown) and feedback signals from muscle (somatosensory input). These three inputs are likely to modulate the speed of locomotion. (B) In order to generate a locomotion pattern such as crawling, it is essential to orchestrate the contraction of muscles along the body. During forward movement, the A27h neuron in a given segment is active and drives contraction of the corresponding muscles (black: active elements, white: inactive elements). It also activates the GDL neuron in the next segment, which inactivates the corresponding A27h neuron and prevents the muscles in this segment from contracting at the same time. Then, A27h activity in the first segment declines, which relieves the inhibition of A27h in the second segment and allows the muscles to contract. P → A: posterior (back) to anterior (front)

Mentions: By using isolated ventral nerve cords, Fushiki et al. identified a sub-network that includes two key neurons repeated in each body segment. The first neuron, termed A27h, acts directly on motor neurons to drive muscle contraction (Figure 1). It also activates the other key neuron – known as a GABAergic dorsolateral neuron (GDL) – in the next segment, which then inhibits the A27h neuron in the corresponding segment. The coordinated activation of A27h and GDL neurons generates the motor commands needed to contract the muscles in one segment while relaxing the muscles in the next. Fushiki et al. show that the two neurons are necessary to ensure that a wave of muscle contraction moves along the body.Figure 1.A neural circuit for crawling in fruit fly larvae.


Crawling towards a map of the brain.

Masullo L, Tripodi M - Elife (2016)

A neural circuit for crawling in fruit fly larvae.(A) The motor neurons (MN) in a given body segment trigger the contraction of abdominal muscles in that segment (orange). Two other neurons control each motor neuron: the A27h neuron (dark blue) activates the motor neuron, and the GDL neuron (light blue) inhibits the A27h neuron. The circuit formed by these three neurons also receives input from the brain (descending input), input from other segmental neurons (not shown) and feedback signals from muscle (somatosensory input). These three inputs are likely to modulate the speed of locomotion. (B) In order to generate a locomotion pattern such as crawling, it is essential to orchestrate the contraction of muscles along the body. During forward movement, the A27h neuron in a given segment is active and drives contraction of the corresponding muscles (black: active elements, white: inactive elements). It also activates the GDL neuron in the next segment, which inactivates the corresponding A27h neuron and prevents the muscles in this segment from contracting at the same time. Then, A27h activity in the first segment declines, which relieves the inhibition of A27h in the second segment and allows the muscles to contract. P → A: posterior (back) to anterior (front)
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fig1: A neural circuit for crawling in fruit fly larvae.(A) The motor neurons (MN) in a given body segment trigger the contraction of abdominal muscles in that segment (orange). Two other neurons control each motor neuron: the A27h neuron (dark blue) activates the motor neuron, and the GDL neuron (light blue) inhibits the A27h neuron. The circuit formed by these three neurons also receives input from the brain (descending input), input from other segmental neurons (not shown) and feedback signals from muscle (somatosensory input). These three inputs are likely to modulate the speed of locomotion. (B) In order to generate a locomotion pattern such as crawling, it is essential to orchestrate the contraction of muscles along the body. During forward movement, the A27h neuron in a given segment is active and drives contraction of the corresponding muscles (black: active elements, white: inactive elements). It also activates the GDL neuron in the next segment, which inactivates the corresponding A27h neuron and prevents the muscles in this segment from contracting at the same time. Then, A27h activity in the first segment declines, which relieves the inhibition of A27h in the second segment and allows the muscles to contract. P → A: posterior (back) to anterior (front)
Mentions: By using isolated ventral nerve cords, Fushiki et al. identified a sub-network that includes two key neurons repeated in each body segment. The first neuron, termed A27h, acts directly on motor neurons to drive muscle contraction (Figure 1). It also activates the other key neuron – known as a GABAergic dorsolateral neuron (GDL) – in the next segment, which then inhibits the A27h neuron in the corresponding segment. The coordinated activation of A27h and GDL neurons generates the motor commands needed to contract the muscles in one segment while relaxing the muscles in the next. Fushiki et al. show that the two neurons are necessary to ensure that a wave of muscle contraction moves along the body.Figure 1.A neural circuit for crawling in fruit fly larvae.

Bottom Line: State-of-the-art techniques reveal a simple circuit of neurons controls the muscle contractions that allow fruit fly larvae to crawl.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
State-of-the-art techniques reveal a simple circuit of neurons controls the muscle contractions that allow fruit fly larvae to crawl.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus