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Different Growth and Physiological Responses to Cadmium of the Three Miscanthus Species.

Guo H, Hong C, Chen X, Xu Y, Liu Y, Jiang D, Zheng B - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: To determine any differences in resistance of Miscanthus to Cd, we examined plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), activities of anti-oxidant and C4 photosynthetic enzymes, concentrations of Cd in leaves and roots, and observed the chloroplast structure in three Miscanthus species treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 μM Cd in solutions.Miscanthus sacchariflorus showed higher resistance to Cd and better growth, had the highest Pn and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities and integrative chloroplast structure and the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and leaf and root Cd concentrations.The results could play an important role in understanding the mechanisms of Cd tolerance in plants and in application of phytoremediation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Miscanthus has been proposed as a promising crop for phytoremediation due to its high biomass yield and remarkable adaptability to different environments. However, little is known about the resistance of Miscanthus spp. to cadmium (Cd). To determine any differences in resistance of Miscanthus to Cd, we examined plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), activities of anti-oxidant and C4 photosynthetic enzymes, concentrations of Cd in leaves and roots, and observed the chloroplast structure in three Miscanthus species treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 μM Cd in solutions. Miscanthus sinensis showed more sensitivity to Cd, including sharp decreases in growth, Pn, PEPC activity and damage to chloroplast structure, and the highest H2O2 and Cd concentrations in leaves and roots after Cd treatments. Miscanthus sacchariflorus showed higher resistance to Cd and better growth, had the highest Pn and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities and integrative chloroplast structure and the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and leaf and root Cd concentrations. The results could play an important role in understanding the mechanisms of Cd tolerance in plants and in application of phytoremediation.

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The chloroplast ultrastructure in bundle sheath cells.(A,D,G,J,M) M. sinensis; (B,E,H,K,N) M. floridulus; and (C,F,I,L,O) M. sacchariflorus. Note the differences in number of osmiophilic globules (OG, indicated by arrows) between different Cd treatments. Abbreviations: CH, chloroplast; CW, cell wall; SG, starch grains; M, mitochondria; V, vacuole.
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pone.0153475.g006: The chloroplast ultrastructure in bundle sheath cells.(A,D,G,J,M) M. sinensis; (B,E,H,K,N) M. floridulus; and (C,F,I,L,O) M. sacchariflorus. Note the differences in number of osmiophilic globules (OG, indicated by arrows) between different Cd treatments. Abbreviations: CH, chloroplast; CW, cell wall; SG, starch grains; M, mitochondria; V, vacuole.

Mentions: The structural changes in chloroplasts markedly differed between Miscanthus spp. under Cd stress (Fig 6 and S2 Fig). With zero Cd treatment, chloroplasts in all species showed well-developed structures with normal granal and stromal thylakoids and some small osmiophilic globules (Fig 6A–6C). Treatment ≥ 10 μM Cd dramatically increased production of starch grains and enlarged osmiophilic globules in M. sinensis (Fig 6D, 6G and 6J); 100 μM Cd caused accumulation of small starch grains and enlargement of osmiophilic globules in M. floridulus (Fig 6K and 6N); but in M. sacchariflorus, only 200 μM Cd resulted in accumulation of small starch grains and enlargement osmiophilic globules (Fig 6L and 6O). The chloroplast envelope became indistinct in M. sinensis treated with ≥ 50 μM Cd (Fig 6G, 6J and 6M) and in M. floridulus treated with ≥ 100 μM Cd. Higher concentrations of exogenous Cd caused the granal and stromal lamellae of chloroplasts to condense and a loss of connection between both lamellae in M sinensis (Fig 6G, 6J and 6M) and M. floridulus (Fig 6N). The chloroplast structure in M. sacchariflorus did not change significantly for all Cd concentrations.


Different Growth and Physiological Responses to Cadmium of the Three Miscanthus Species.

Guo H, Hong C, Chen X, Xu Y, Liu Y, Jiang D, Zheng B - PLoS ONE (2016)

The chloroplast ultrastructure in bundle sheath cells.(A,D,G,J,M) M. sinensis; (B,E,H,K,N) M. floridulus; and (C,F,I,L,O) M. sacchariflorus. Note the differences in number of osmiophilic globules (OG, indicated by arrows) between different Cd treatments. Abbreviations: CH, chloroplast; CW, cell wall; SG, starch grains; M, mitochondria; V, vacuole.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4829268&req=5

pone.0153475.g006: The chloroplast ultrastructure in bundle sheath cells.(A,D,G,J,M) M. sinensis; (B,E,H,K,N) M. floridulus; and (C,F,I,L,O) M. sacchariflorus. Note the differences in number of osmiophilic globules (OG, indicated by arrows) between different Cd treatments. Abbreviations: CH, chloroplast; CW, cell wall; SG, starch grains; M, mitochondria; V, vacuole.
Mentions: The structural changes in chloroplasts markedly differed between Miscanthus spp. under Cd stress (Fig 6 and S2 Fig). With zero Cd treatment, chloroplasts in all species showed well-developed structures with normal granal and stromal thylakoids and some small osmiophilic globules (Fig 6A–6C). Treatment ≥ 10 μM Cd dramatically increased production of starch grains and enlarged osmiophilic globules in M. sinensis (Fig 6D, 6G and 6J); 100 μM Cd caused accumulation of small starch grains and enlargement of osmiophilic globules in M. floridulus (Fig 6K and 6N); but in M. sacchariflorus, only 200 μM Cd resulted in accumulation of small starch grains and enlargement osmiophilic globules (Fig 6L and 6O). The chloroplast envelope became indistinct in M. sinensis treated with ≥ 50 μM Cd (Fig 6G, 6J and 6M) and in M. floridulus treated with ≥ 100 μM Cd. Higher concentrations of exogenous Cd caused the granal and stromal lamellae of chloroplasts to condense and a loss of connection between both lamellae in M sinensis (Fig 6G, 6J and 6M) and M. floridulus (Fig 6N). The chloroplast structure in M. sacchariflorus did not change significantly for all Cd concentrations.

Bottom Line: To determine any differences in resistance of Miscanthus to Cd, we examined plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), activities of anti-oxidant and C4 photosynthetic enzymes, concentrations of Cd in leaves and roots, and observed the chloroplast structure in three Miscanthus species treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 μM Cd in solutions.Miscanthus sacchariflorus showed higher resistance to Cd and better growth, had the highest Pn and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities and integrative chloroplast structure and the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and leaf and root Cd concentrations.The results could play an important role in understanding the mechanisms of Cd tolerance in plants and in application of phytoremediation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Miscanthus has been proposed as a promising crop for phytoremediation due to its high biomass yield and remarkable adaptability to different environments. However, little is known about the resistance of Miscanthus spp. to cadmium (Cd). To determine any differences in resistance of Miscanthus to Cd, we examined plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), activities of anti-oxidant and C4 photosynthetic enzymes, concentrations of Cd in leaves and roots, and observed the chloroplast structure in three Miscanthus species treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 μM Cd in solutions. Miscanthus sinensis showed more sensitivity to Cd, including sharp decreases in growth, Pn, PEPC activity and damage to chloroplast structure, and the highest H2O2 and Cd concentrations in leaves and roots after Cd treatments. Miscanthus sacchariflorus showed higher resistance to Cd and better growth, had the highest Pn and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities and integrative chloroplast structure and the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and leaf and root Cd concentrations. The results could play an important role in understanding the mechanisms of Cd tolerance in plants and in application of phytoremediation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus