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Penetrating spinal cord injury with screwdriver in situ, leading to Brown-Sequard syndrome.

Meena US, Kataria R, Sharma K, Sardana VR - J Neurosci Rural Pract (2016 Apr-Jun)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

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Sir, Brown-Sequard syndrome is lateral hemisection of spinal cord characterized by motor weakness and loss of proprioception ipsilateral to the side of the lesion, along with loss temperature and pressure on the contralateral side... Based on nature of the lesion, decompression and/or steroids are used for management of acute cases of Brown-Sequard syndrome... Postoperative period was uneventful... There was no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, patient gradually improved to 4/5 power at hip, knee, and ankle although sensory deficit in the form of hypoesthesia persisted till the last follow-up (3 months back)... It is characterized by ipsilateral motor weakness and loss of proprioception with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations... Etiologically, Brown-Sequard syndrome is classified into two broad categories: Traumatic and nontraumatic... Penetrating injury can occur due to fall on a pointed object, stabbing with scissors, garden fork, and sickles, etc., Screwdrivers are infrequently used in assaults leading to spinal cord injuries... As a weapon, it can apply a concentrated force to a small area, with rigid stream allowing it to penetrate bone more easily as compared to a blade... Most authors recommend plain X-ray and CT scan to know the presence of retained foreign body, level of lesion, vertebral fracture, and relation between foreign body and spinal cord... Although late complications such as myelopathy, intramedullary abscess, progressive neurological deficit, and symptomatic pseudomeningocele have been reported due to foreign material, no spinal instability has been reported... Prognosis for the stab injuries is better than the gunshot wound with recovery being reported in more than 66% of incomplete injuries... Penetrating injury of the spinal cord with retained metallic object is a rare entity and may be even “once in a lifetime” experience in the life of even reasonably experienced neurosurgeons practicing in the civil (nonmilitary) settings... One has to be very cautious in transporting, investigating, and intubating such patients in the lateral position, etc., An early surgical intervention wherever indicated is the key to good outcome in these patients... There are no conflicts of interest.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Radiograph showing metallic foreign body at D12 level reaching almost up to the mid of vertebral body
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Figure 2: Radiograph showing metallic foreign body at D12 level reaching almost up to the mid of vertebral body

Mentions: Brown-Sequard syndrome is lateral hemisection of spinal cord characterized by motor weakness and loss of proprioception ipsilateral to the side of the lesion, along with loss temperature and pressure on the contralateral side.[1] It occurs secondary to traumatic, neoplastic, congenital, or degenerative lesions of spinal cord.[1] Penetrating injury constitutes only small number of cases of traumatic origin. Most of the cases of penetrating spinal cord injury are of assaults, industrial, and road traffic accidents. The penetrating object can range from a pencil or chopstick to iron rod, scissors, etc., knife being the most common. Based on nature of the lesion, decompression and/or steroids are used for management of acute cases of Brown-Sequard syndrome.[2] So far only five cases of Brown-Sequard syndrome due to penetrating spinal cord injury with object in situ have been reported [Table 1]. A 20-year-old male was admitted in our institute after being stabbed in the back. On admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable with weakness of the right lower limb. His physical examination revealed small stab wound with retained metallic foreign body in mid-back about 1 cm from the midline on the left side [Figure 1]. Neurological examination of the patient revealed right lower limb paresis with muscle strength of 1/5 at the hip, knee, and ankle joints. There was loss of pain, temperature, and touch sensations below L2 on the left side. Radiograph of thoracic spine shows metallic foreign body at D12 level [Figure 2]. Computed tomography (CT) spine shows long metallic foreign body piercing the skin, subcutaneous tissue on the left side, and traversing the spinal canal from left to right with its tip reaching about mid of vertebral body at D12 level. No spinal angiography could be done in the middle of night. An emergency surgical decompression of the cord was planned. The anesthesiologist could put the endotracheal tube in lateral position. The stab wound extended upward and downward over the midline and D11, D12, and L1 laminectomy was done, which revealed that the screwdriver had penetrated the dura and entered the spinal cord [Figure 3]. Until this point, every attempt was made to avoid even slightest movement of the metallic object relative to the spine. Screwdriver was removed through the same trajectory of its entry after opening the dura above and below in midline. Bleeding from the track was stopped by packing the vertebral body with oxidized cellulose. Dura closed primarily after securing hemostasis. No attempt was made to close the ventral dural defect with suture/glue or dural patch. Postoperative period was uneventful. There was no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, patient gradually improved to 4/5 power at hip, knee, and ankle although sensory deficit in the form of hypoesthesia persisted till the last follow-up (3 months back).


Penetrating spinal cord injury with screwdriver in situ, leading to Brown-Sequard syndrome.

Meena US, Kataria R, Sharma K, Sardana VR - J Neurosci Rural Pract (2016 Apr-Jun)

Radiograph showing metallic foreign body at D12 level reaching almost up to the mid of vertebral body
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4821956&req=5

Figure 2: Radiograph showing metallic foreign body at D12 level reaching almost up to the mid of vertebral body
Mentions: Brown-Sequard syndrome is lateral hemisection of spinal cord characterized by motor weakness and loss of proprioception ipsilateral to the side of the lesion, along with loss temperature and pressure on the contralateral side.[1] It occurs secondary to traumatic, neoplastic, congenital, or degenerative lesions of spinal cord.[1] Penetrating injury constitutes only small number of cases of traumatic origin. Most of the cases of penetrating spinal cord injury are of assaults, industrial, and road traffic accidents. The penetrating object can range from a pencil or chopstick to iron rod, scissors, etc., knife being the most common. Based on nature of the lesion, decompression and/or steroids are used for management of acute cases of Brown-Sequard syndrome.[2] So far only five cases of Brown-Sequard syndrome due to penetrating spinal cord injury with object in situ have been reported [Table 1]. A 20-year-old male was admitted in our institute after being stabbed in the back. On admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable with weakness of the right lower limb. His physical examination revealed small stab wound with retained metallic foreign body in mid-back about 1 cm from the midline on the left side [Figure 1]. Neurological examination of the patient revealed right lower limb paresis with muscle strength of 1/5 at the hip, knee, and ankle joints. There was loss of pain, temperature, and touch sensations below L2 on the left side. Radiograph of thoracic spine shows metallic foreign body at D12 level [Figure 2]. Computed tomography (CT) spine shows long metallic foreign body piercing the skin, subcutaneous tissue on the left side, and traversing the spinal canal from left to right with its tip reaching about mid of vertebral body at D12 level. No spinal angiography could be done in the middle of night. An emergency surgical decompression of the cord was planned. The anesthesiologist could put the endotracheal tube in lateral position. The stab wound extended upward and downward over the midline and D11, D12, and L1 laminectomy was done, which revealed that the screwdriver had penetrated the dura and entered the spinal cord [Figure 3]. Until this point, every attempt was made to avoid even slightest movement of the metallic object relative to the spine. Screwdriver was removed through the same trajectory of its entry after opening the dura above and below in midline. Bleeding from the track was stopped by packing the vertebral body with oxidized cellulose. Dura closed primarily after securing hemostasis. No attempt was made to close the ventral dural defect with suture/glue or dural patch. Postoperative period was uneventful. There was no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, patient gradually improved to 4/5 power at hip, knee, and ankle although sensory deficit in the form of hypoesthesia persisted till the last follow-up (3 months back).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Sir, Brown-Sequard syndrome is lateral hemisection of spinal cord characterized by motor weakness and loss of proprioception ipsilateral to the side of the lesion, along with loss temperature and pressure on the contralateral side... Based on nature of the lesion, decompression and/or steroids are used for management of acute cases of Brown-Sequard syndrome... Postoperative period was uneventful... There was no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, patient gradually improved to 4/5 power at hip, knee, and ankle although sensory deficit in the form of hypoesthesia persisted till the last follow-up (3 months back)... It is characterized by ipsilateral motor weakness and loss of proprioception with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations... Etiologically, Brown-Sequard syndrome is classified into two broad categories: Traumatic and nontraumatic... Penetrating injury can occur due to fall on a pointed object, stabbing with scissors, garden fork, and sickles, etc., Screwdrivers are infrequently used in assaults leading to spinal cord injuries... As a weapon, it can apply a concentrated force to a small area, with rigid stream allowing it to penetrate bone more easily as compared to a blade... Most authors recommend plain X-ray and CT scan to know the presence of retained foreign body, level of lesion, vertebral fracture, and relation between foreign body and spinal cord... Although late complications such as myelopathy, intramedullary abscess, progressive neurological deficit, and symptomatic pseudomeningocele have been reported due to foreign material, no spinal instability has been reported... Prognosis for the stab injuries is better than the gunshot wound with recovery being reported in more than 66% of incomplete injuries... Penetrating injury of the spinal cord with retained metallic object is a rare entity and may be even “once in a lifetime” experience in the life of even reasonably experienced neurosurgeons practicing in the civil (nonmilitary) settings... One has to be very cautious in transporting, investigating, and intubating such patients in the lateral position, etc., An early surgical intervention wherever indicated is the key to good outcome in these patients... There are no conflicts of interest.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus