Limits...
Effect of root-extracts of Ficus benghalensis (Banyan) in pain in animal models.

Panday DR, Rauniar GP - J Neurosci Rural Pract (2016 Apr-Jun)

Bottom Line: Hot-plate reaction time at 100 mg/kg (13.64 ± 1.30 s) and 200 mg/kg (10.32 ± 2.23 s) were nonsignificant (P = 0.425 and P = 0.498, respectively) compared to negative control (11.87 ± 1.92 s).One-way ANOVA revealed nonsignificant (P = 0.178) between-group comparison in mean tail-flick reaction time.Aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at 200 mg/kg produces statistically significant writhing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: According to the WHO, 70-80% population in developing countries still relies on nonconventional medicine mainly of herbal origin. Even in developed countries, use of herbal medicine is growing each year. Pain is an unpleasant feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. Traditionally, different plant parts of Ficus benghalensis are claimed to have several analgesic properties. Few scientific evidences support these uses. Interestingly, still others contradict these uses. It was shocking to find very scarce scientific studies trying to solve the mystery.

Materials and methods: It was a quantitative experimental study in Swiss albino mice of either sex. Sample size was calculated using free sample size calculating software G*Power version 3.1.9.2. Hot-plate test and tail-flick test were central antinociceptive paradigms. Writhing test was peripheral model for pain. Test drugs were aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg mouse weight prepared by Soxhlet method. Suitable negative and positive controls were used. The experimental results were represented as mean ± standard deviation statistical level of significance was set at P < 0.05. For calculation, parametric test - one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or nonparametric test - Mann-Whitney U-test was appropriately used.

Results: Hot-plate reaction time at 100 mg/kg (13.64 ± 1.30 s) and 200 mg/kg (10.32 ± 2.23 s) were nonsignificant (P = 0.425 and P = 0.498, respectively) compared to negative control (11.87 ± 1.92 s). One-way ANOVA revealed nonsignificant (P = 0.178) between-group comparison in mean tail-flick reaction time. Test drug at 200 mg/kg produced statistically significant more writhing (36.00 ± 14.85 in 10 min) than negative control, normal saline (11.83 ± 12.43 in 10 min) or the positive control, Indomethacin (3.50 ± 5.21 in 10 min), P value being 0.031 and 0.003, respectively.

Conclusion: Aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at 200 mg/kg produces statistically significant writhing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Soxhlet apparatus in use
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4821927&req=5

Figure 2: Soxhlet apparatus in use

Mentions: A F. benghalensis tree was authenticated by a botanist. About 2.5 kg aerial roots of the tree was carefully collected, thoroughly washed with tap-water, shade-dried for several days, and pulverized to fine powder in a mixer. About 2 kg of resulting crude root-powder was extracted in several batches using soxhlet apparatus [Figure 2] (Jain Scientific Glass Works Ambala Cantt; Extraction Pot: 250 ml; Soxhlet chamber size: 100 ml; Heater: DICA India). Distilled water was used for extraction. Each batch was extracted for an approximately 24 h. Thus produced aqueous root extract was heated in 50°C for a brief time interval, stopped just before the apparently saturated solution precipitated and left in room temperature until the moisture dried. 2 kg crude root-powder yielded 102.68 g extract (5.13%) by soxhlet method.[13] Thus resulted dried powder extract was safely stored in a dry air-tight plastic container until the day of the experiment.[14] On the experiment day, 20 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml solutions in distilled water were prepared by serial dilution such that 1 ml/100 g mouse body weight could be injected into the mice in test-drug group for the desired test dose of 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively. On the day of experiment, the previous day solutions were discarded and fresh solutions prepared.


Effect of root-extracts of Ficus benghalensis (Banyan) in pain in animal models.

Panday DR, Rauniar GP - J Neurosci Rural Pract (2016 Apr-Jun)

Soxhlet apparatus in use
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4821927&req=5

Figure 2: Soxhlet apparatus in use
Mentions: A F. benghalensis tree was authenticated by a botanist. About 2.5 kg aerial roots of the tree was carefully collected, thoroughly washed with tap-water, shade-dried for several days, and pulverized to fine powder in a mixer. About 2 kg of resulting crude root-powder was extracted in several batches using soxhlet apparatus [Figure 2] (Jain Scientific Glass Works Ambala Cantt; Extraction Pot: 250 ml; Soxhlet chamber size: 100 ml; Heater: DICA India). Distilled water was used for extraction. Each batch was extracted for an approximately 24 h. Thus produced aqueous root extract was heated in 50°C for a brief time interval, stopped just before the apparently saturated solution precipitated and left in room temperature until the moisture dried. 2 kg crude root-powder yielded 102.68 g extract (5.13%) by soxhlet method.[13] Thus resulted dried powder extract was safely stored in a dry air-tight plastic container until the day of the experiment.[14] On the experiment day, 20 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml solutions in distilled water were prepared by serial dilution such that 1 ml/100 g mouse body weight could be injected into the mice in test-drug group for the desired test dose of 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively. On the day of experiment, the previous day solutions were discarded and fresh solutions prepared.

Bottom Line: Hot-plate reaction time at 100 mg/kg (13.64 ± 1.30 s) and 200 mg/kg (10.32 ± 2.23 s) were nonsignificant (P = 0.425 and P = 0.498, respectively) compared to negative control (11.87 ± 1.92 s).One-way ANOVA revealed nonsignificant (P = 0.178) between-group comparison in mean tail-flick reaction time.Aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at 200 mg/kg produces statistically significant writhing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: According to the WHO, 70-80% population in developing countries still relies on nonconventional medicine mainly of herbal origin. Even in developed countries, use of herbal medicine is growing each year. Pain is an unpleasant feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. Traditionally, different plant parts of Ficus benghalensis are claimed to have several analgesic properties. Few scientific evidences support these uses. Interestingly, still others contradict these uses. It was shocking to find very scarce scientific studies trying to solve the mystery.

Materials and methods: It was a quantitative experimental study in Swiss albino mice of either sex. Sample size was calculated using free sample size calculating software G*Power version 3.1.9.2. Hot-plate test and tail-flick test were central antinociceptive paradigms. Writhing test was peripheral model for pain. Test drugs were aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg mouse weight prepared by Soxhlet method. Suitable negative and positive controls were used. The experimental results were represented as mean ± standard deviation statistical level of significance was set at P < 0.05. For calculation, parametric test - one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or nonparametric test - Mann-Whitney U-test was appropriately used.

Results: Hot-plate reaction time at 100 mg/kg (13.64 ± 1.30 s) and 200 mg/kg (10.32 ± 2.23 s) were nonsignificant (P = 0.425 and P = 0.498, respectively) compared to negative control (11.87 ± 1.92 s). One-way ANOVA revealed nonsignificant (P = 0.178) between-group comparison in mean tail-flick reaction time. Test drug at 200 mg/kg produced statistically significant more writhing (36.00 ± 14.85 in 10 min) than negative control, normal saline (11.83 ± 12.43 in 10 min) or the positive control, Indomethacin (3.50 ± 5.21 in 10 min), P value being 0.031 and 0.003, respectively.

Conclusion: Aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at 200 mg/kg produces statistically significant writhing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus