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Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report.

Lee JY, Lee HH, Kim S, Jang YJ, Baek YJ, Kang KY - Ind Health (2015)

Bottom Line: All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea.Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05).These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155-341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Donning wetsuits and equipment (A), walking to enter the sea and entering theseawater (B–E), swimming back to the coast (F), arriving to the coast (G), walkingback to the haenyeos’ resting house (H, I), and classifying seafood harvested (J).‘H’ is from http://www.jejusg.co.kr.
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fig_001: Donning wetsuits and equipment (A), walking to enter the sea and entering theseawater (B–E), swimming back to the coast (F), arriving to the coast (G), walkingback to the haenyeos’ resting house (H, I), and classifying seafood harvested (J).‘H’ is from http://www.jejusg.co.kr.

Mentions: The anthropometric survey and interview were carried out on Jan 23 and 24, 2014. Fieldtests using heart rate monitoring devices were conducted for three days (Jan 24 and 25,and Apr 8, 2014). Haenyeos arrived at a preparatory house located near the coast before 8am. Thereafter, they were equipped with heart rate monitoring devices (a chest belt and awrist watch) (Model RS400 or RS800, Polar Electro, Finland) and donned wet suits with 4 mmor 5 mm thickness. More detailed description on the wet suit was presented in Lee andLee1). We began to record heart rate at5-s interval as soon as they began walking to the coast, and averaged the heart rate as1-min interval for analysis. Haenyeos wore T-shirts, briefs, socks and/or tights insidethe wet suits. We recorded air temperature and air humidity (LT 8A, Gram Corporation,Japan), globe temperature (a black globe thermometer with 150 mm in diameter), and airflow (Velocicalc Air velocity Meter 8345, TSI, USA) on the coast at 10-min intervals. Seasurface temperatures during the field test were used from Korea Oceanographic Data Centre.Seawater temperature becomes lower as it gets deeper, but is almost uniform between0–250 m in depth. Because haenyeos usually dive up to 5 m and to maximum 20 m in depth, weused the sea surface temperature from Korea Oceanographic Data Centre15). Individual time of entering the seawater and coming outfrom the seawater were recorded. Haenyeos collected abalone, turban shell, sea urchins,sea cucumber, octopus, or seaweed from the sea and they carried the seafood using theirindividual net bag on their back or using a pickup truck for transport to the preparatoryhouse (Fig. 1Fig. 1.


Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report.

Lee JY, Lee HH, Kim S, Jang YJ, Baek YJ, Kang KY - Ind Health (2015)

Donning wetsuits and equipment (A), walking to enter the sea and entering theseawater (B–E), swimming back to the coast (F), arriving to the coast (G), walkingback to the haenyeos’ resting house (H, I), and classifying seafood harvested (J).‘H’ is from http://www.jejusg.co.kr.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4821902&req=5

fig_001: Donning wetsuits and equipment (A), walking to enter the sea and entering theseawater (B–E), swimming back to the coast (F), arriving to the coast (G), walkingback to the haenyeos’ resting house (H, I), and classifying seafood harvested (J).‘H’ is from http://www.jejusg.co.kr.
Mentions: The anthropometric survey and interview were carried out on Jan 23 and 24, 2014. Fieldtests using heart rate monitoring devices were conducted for three days (Jan 24 and 25,and Apr 8, 2014). Haenyeos arrived at a preparatory house located near the coast before 8am. Thereafter, they were equipped with heart rate monitoring devices (a chest belt and awrist watch) (Model RS400 or RS800, Polar Electro, Finland) and donned wet suits with 4 mmor 5 mm thickness. More detailed description on the wet suit was presented in Lee andLee1). We began to record heart rate at5-s interval as soon as they began walking to the coast, and averaged the heart rate as1-min interval for analysis. Haenyeos wore T-shirts, briefs, socks and/or tights insidethe wet suits. We recorded air temperature and air humidity (LT 8A, Gram Corporation,Japan), globe temperature (a black globe thermometer with 150 mm in diameter), and airflow (Velocicalc Air velocity Meter 8345, TSI, USA) on the coast at 10-min intervals. Seasurface temperatures during the field test were used from Korea Oceanographic Data Centre.Seawater temperature becomes lower as it gets deeper, but is almost uniform between0–250 m in depth. Because haenyeos usually dive up to 5 m and to maximum 20 m in depth, weused the sea surface temperature from Korea Oceanographic Data Centre15). Individual time of entering the seawater and coming outfrom the seawater were recorded. Haenyeos collected abalone, turban shell, sea urchins,sea cucumber, octopus, or seaweed from the sea and they carried the seafood using theirindividual net bag on their back or using a pickup truck for transport to the preparatoryhouse (Fig. 1Fig. 1.

Bottom Line: All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea.Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05).These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155-341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus