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Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

Cai A, Xu H, Shao X, Zhu P, Zhang W, Xu M, Murphy DV - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment.Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient.Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

ABSTRACT
Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000-250 μm > 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

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Change in soil organic carbon (SOC, a) and total nitrogen (N) (b) in bulk soil from the control (CK) or soil that has received 32 years of chemical fertilizer application (N, P: phosphorus, K: potassium) and either 0 (M0), 30 (M30) or 60 (M60) t manure ha-1 yr-1.Note: Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences at 5% probability level. Capped bars are standard error of the mean (n = 3).
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pone.0152521.g001: Change in soil organic carbon (SOC, a) and total nitrogen (N) (b) in bulk soil from the control (CK) or soil that has received 32 years of chemical fertilizer application (N, P: phosphorus, K: potassium) and either 0 (M0), 30 (M30) or 60 (M60) t manure ha-1 yr-1.Note: Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences at 5% probability level. Capped bars are standard error of the mean (n = 3).

Mentions: The SOC and total N of the control (M0CK) remained unchanged over the 32 years of field treatments (16.1 vs. 16.9 g C kg-1; 1.9 vs. 1.8 g N kg-1; Table 1). Long-term manure application increased SOC by 34–82% and total N by 30–96%, while the application of chemical fertilizer alone (M0N and M0NPK) had no effect on SOC or total N content, compared with the M0CK. The size of the SMB-C increased by 46–196% (and SMB-N increased by 11–91%), in response to 32 years of manure application, whereas there was no effect of chemical fertilizers application alone (Table 1). Nitrogen mineralization significantly increased with increase in manure application rate, while chemical fertilizer or manure application did not influence the C mineralization rate (Table 1). There was no impact of chemical fertilizer application on the C:N of soil microbial biomass (SMB), while increasing manure application resulted in a significant increase in this ratio from a bacterial (M0; SMB C:N ratio = 5.6:1) to a fungal (M60; SMB C:N ratio = 10.5:1) dominated system (Table 1). There was a tendency for the microbial quotient (qCO2) to be higher in the plots that did not received manure; this was significant within the CK and NPK treatments (Table 1). Regardless of chemical fertilizer application, the qCO2 was significantly higher (approximately double) in the no manure treatments (M0) compared with plots that received manure application. However, there was no significant difference in qCO2 between the treatments with M30 vs. M60. Compared with the initial year soil values, the treatments with M30 and M60 significantly increased SOC by 7.7 and 11.4 g kg-1, and total N by 0.39 and 0.85 g kg-1, respectively (Fig 1). This increments represented conversion efficiencies C of 9.16% (M30) and 6.80% (M60) from manure C to SOC, and of 9.3% (M30) and 10.1% (M60) from manure-N to soil total N. The effect of combined application of manure and chemical fertilizer was better for SOC and total N sequestration than application manure alone.


Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

Cai A, Xu H, Shao X, Zhu P, Zhang W, Xu M, Murphy DV - PLoS ONE (2016)

Change in soil organic carbon (SOC, a) and total nitrogen (N) (b) in bulk soil from the control (CK) or soil that has received 32 years of chemical fertilizer application (N, P: phosphorus, K: potassium) and either 0 (M0), 30 (M30) or 60 (M60) t manure ha-1 yr-1.Note: Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences at 5% probability level. Capped bars are standard error of the mean (n = 3).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816382&req=5

pone.0152521.g001: Change in soil organic carbon (SOC, a) and total nitrogen (N) (b) in bulk soil from the control (CK) or soil that has received 32 years of chemical fertilizer application (N, P: phosphorus, K: potassium) and either 0 (M0), 30 (M30) or 60 (M60) t manure ha-1 yr-1.Note: Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences at 5% probability level. Capped bars are standard error of the mean (n = 3).
Mentions: The SOC and total N of the control (M0CK) remained unchanged over the 32 years of field treatments (16.1 vs. 16.9 g C kg-1; 1.9 vs. 1.8 g N kg-1; Table 1). Long-term manure application increased SOC by 34–82% and total N by 30–96%, while the application of chemical fertilizer alone (M0N and M0NPK) had no effect on SOC or total N content, compared with the M0CK. The size of the SMB-C increased by 46–196% (and SMB-N increased by 11–91%), in response to 32 years of manure application, whereas there was no effect of chemical fertilizers application alone (Table 1). Nitrogen mineralization significantly increased with increase in manure application rate, while chemical fertilizer or manure application did not influence the C mineralization rate (Table 1). There was no impact of chemical fertilizer application on the C:N of soil microbial biomass (SMB), while increasing manure application resulted in a significant increase in this ratio from a bacterial (M0; SMB C:N ratio = 5.6:1) to a fungal (M60; SMB C:N ratio = 10.5:1) dominated system (Table 1). There was a tendency for the microbial quotient (qCO2) to be higher in the plots that did not received manure; this was significant within the CK and NPK treatments (Table 1). Regardless of chemical fertilizer application, the qCO2 was significantly higher (approximately double) in the no manure treatments (M0) compared with plots that received manure application. However, there was no significant difference in qCO2 between the treatments with M30 vs. M60. Compared with the initial year soil values, the treatments with M30 and M60 significantly increased SOC by 7.7 and 11.4 g kg-1, and total N by 0.39 and 0.85 g kg-1, respectively (Fig 1). This increments represented conversion efficiencies C of 9.16% (M30) and 6.80% (M60) from manure C to SOC, and of 9.3% (M30) and 10.1% (M60) from manure-N to soil total N. The effect of combined application of manure and chemical fertilizer was better for SOC and total N sequestration than application manure alone.

Bottom Line: In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment.Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient.Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

ABSTRACT
Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000-250 μm > 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus