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The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation.

Vernunft A, Ivell R, Heng K, Anand-Ivell R - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig.At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation.At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FBN Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus.

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Frequency histogram for INSL3 concentration in amniotic fluid (AM) from all GD30 fetuses, irrespective of fetal sex.LOD, limit of assay detection.
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pone.0152689.g003: Frequency histogram for INSL3 concentration in amniotic fluid (AM) from all GD30 fetuses, irrespective of fetal sex.LOD, limit of assay detection.

Mentions: INSL3 was measured in allantoic fluid (AL) and amniotic fluid (AM) from male and female fetuses at GD45, GD63, and GD92 (term is at approximately GD114), and at GD30 in amniotic fluid only. Additionally, INSL3 was measured in fetal plasma at GD63 and GD92. GD30 represents a time-point when sex determination as measured by the expression of sex-specific gonadal genes has just begun [25]. It is consequently not surprising that the expression of INSL3 in amniotic fluid at this time-point is largely below the detection limit (Fig 3), and hence while mean values differ between fetal sex for those fetuses where this could be determined (male, 30.5 ± 26.4 pg/ml; female, 22.7 ± 8.6 pg/ml; p = 0.059) this difference does not reach significance. Whereas 45% of fetuses with INSL3 <20pg/ml were male, this proportion increases to 74% for INSL3 values >20pg/ml, and 100% for values >50pg/ml. Interestingly, of the 4 female fetuses registering INSL3 values >30pg/ml, 3 were located adjacent to at least one male fetus.


The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation.

Vernunft A, Ivell R, Heng K, Anand-Ivell R - PLoS ONE (2016)

Frequency histogram for INSL3 concentration in amniotic fluid (AM) from all GD30 fetuses, irrespective of fetal sex.LOD, limit of assay detection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816311&req=5

pone.0152689.g003: Frequency histogram for INSL3 concentration in amniotic fluid (AM) from all GD30 fetuses, irrespective of fetal sex.LOD, limit of assay detection.
Mentions: INSL3 was measured in allantoic fluid (AL) and amniotic fluid (AM) from male and female fetuses at GD45, GD63, and GD92 (term is at approximately GD114), and at GD30 in amniotic fluid only. Additionally, INSL3 was measured in fetal plasma at GD63 and GD92. GD30 represents a time-point when sex determination as measured by the expression of sex-specific gonadal genes has just begun [25]. It is consequently not surprising that the expression of INSL3 in amniotic fluid at this time-point is largely below the detection limit (Fig 3), and hence while mean values differ between fetal sex for those fetuses where this could be determined (male, 30.5 ± 26.4 pg/ml; female, 22.7 ± 8.6 pg/ml; p = 0.059) this difference does not reach significance. Whereas 45% of fetuses with INSL3 <20pg/ml were male, this proportion increases to 74% for INSL3 values >20pg/ml, and 100% for values >50pg/ml. Interestingly, of the 4 female fetuses registering INSL3 values >30pg/ml, 3 were located adjacent to at least one male fetus.

Bottom Line: Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig.At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation.At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FBN Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus