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The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation.

Vernunft A, Ivell R, Heng K, Anand-Ivell R - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig.At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation.At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FBN Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus.

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Circulating INSL3 (A,B,D) or progesterone (C,E) in conceptive (D,E) (n = 11) and non-conceptive (A,C) (n = 12) cycles of gilts subjected to hormonal synchronization and artificial insemination (AI) or not.Panel D also includes INSL3 values from later in pregnancy (n = 4–5). Panel B indicates maternal plasma values for pregnant gilts (n = 12) on day GD15 (intact) and following ovariohysterectomy that day with blood sampling 11–13 days later (castrated).
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pone.0152689.g002: Circulating INSL3 (A,B,D) or progesterone (C,E) in conceptive (D,E) (n = 11) and non-conceptive (A,C) (n = 12) cycles of gilts subjected to hormonal synchronization and artificial insemination (AI) or not.Panel D also includes INSL3 values from later in pregnancy (n = 4–5). Panel B indicates maternal plasma values for pregnant gilts (n = 12) on day GD15 (intact) and following ovariohysterectomy that day with blood sampling 11–13 days later (castrated).

Mentions: Measuring circulating INSL3 across conceptive and non-conceptive cycles (Fig 2A and 2D) shows neither significant differences nor temporal trends, unlike progesterone which markedly reflects the formation, growth and demise of multiple corpora lutea (Fig 2C and 2E). Comparing circulating maternal INSL3 measured across gestation also indicates no significant temporal changes (Fig 2A and 2D), all values being relatively low. As a control for the source of INSL3 in the female pig, circulating INSL3 was also measured in pregnant sows on GD15 and 11–13 days later after ovariohysterectomy (Fig 2B). The castrated values were significantly lower than in the intact animals.


The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation.

Vernunft A, Ivell R, Heng K, Anand-Ivell R - PLoS ONE (2016)

Circulating INSL3 (A,B,D) or progesterone (C,E) in conceptive (D,E) (n = 11) and non-conceptive (A,C) (n = 12) cycles of gilts subjected to hormonal synchronization and artificial insemination (AI) or not.Panel D also includes INSL3 values from later in pregnancy (n = 4–5). Panel B indicates maternal plasma values for pregnant gilts (n = 12) on day GD15 (intact) and following ovariohysterectomy that day with blood sampling 11–13 days later (castrated).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816311&req=5

pone.0152689.g002: Circulating INSL3 (A,B,D) or progesterone (C,E) in conceptive (D,E) (n = 11) and non-conceptive (A,C) (n = 12) cycles of gilts subjected to hormonal synchronization and artificial insemination (AI) or not.Panel D also includes INSL3 values from later in pregnancy (n = 4–5). Panel B indicates maternal plasma values for pregnant gilts (n = 12) on day GD15 (intact) and following ovariohysterectomy that day with blood sampling 11–13 days later (castrated).
Mentions: Measuring circulating INSL3 across conceptive and non-conceptive cycles (Fig 2A and 2D) shows neither significant differences nor temporal trends, unlike progesterone which markedly reflects the formation, growth and demise of multiple corpora lutea (Fig 2C and 2E). Comparing circulating maternal INSL3 measured across gestation also indicates no significant temporal changes (Fig 2A and 2D), all values being relatively low. As a control for the source of INSL3 in the female pig, circulating INSL3 was also measured in pregnant sows on GD15 and 11–13 days later after ovariohysterectomy (Fig 2B). The castrated values were significantly lower than in the intact animals.

Bottom Line: Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig.At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation.At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FBN Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus