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The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation.

Vernunft A, Ivell R, Heng K, Anand-Ivell R - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig.At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation.At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FBN Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagram to indicate scoring (2M, 1M, 0M, 2F, 1F, 0F) of fetal position for fetuses within (left column) or at the fundal end (right column) of a uterine horn.Fetuses at the cervical end of a uterine horn, and thus in contact with the terminal fetus from the other horn, were scored using the left column.
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pone.0152689.g001: Diagram to indicate scoring (2M, 1M, 0M, 2F, 1F, 0F) of fetal position for fetuses within (left column) or at the fundal end (right column) of a uterine horn.Fetuses at the cervical end of a uterine horn, and thus in contact with the terminal fetus from the other horn, were scored using the left column.

Mentions: Particular care was taken to note the positions of all fetuses within the uteri at sample collection (Fig 1). Essentially following the classification of Wise & Christenson [21], male fetal samples were labelled 2F when a male fetus was located between two female fetuses or at the fundal end of a uterine horn; 1F when a male fetus was adjacent to one other male fetus; and 0F when located between two other male fetuses within a uterine horn. For female fetuses, these were labelled 2M when located between two male fetuses within a uterine horn; 1M, when adjacent to a single male fetus either within a uterine horn or at its fundal end; and 0M, when a female fetus has no direct contact to a male fetus. At the cervical end of each horn, where the uterus bifurcates, the last fetuses in left and right horns are in direct contact, similar to those within a uterine horn, and were accordingly labeled.


The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation.

Vernunft A, Ivell R, Heng K, Anand-Ivell R - PLoS ONE (2016)

Diagram to indicate scoring (2M, 1M, 0M, 2F, 1F, 0F) of fetal position for fetuses within (left column) or at the fundal end (right column) of a uterine horn.Fetuses at the cervical end of a uterine horn, and thus in contact with the terminal fetus from the other horn, were scored using the left column.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816311&req=5

pone.0152689.g001: Diagram to indicate scoring (2M, 1M, 0M, 2F, 1F, 0F) of fetal position for fetuses within (left column) or at the fundal end (right column) of a uterine horn.Fetuses at the cervical end of a uterine horn, and thus in contact with the terminal fetus from the other horn, were scored using the left column.
Mentions: Particular care was taken to note the positions of all fetuses within the uteri at sample collection (Fig 1). Essentially following the classification of Wise & Christenson [21], male fetal samples were labelled 2F when a male fetus was located between two female fetuses or at the fundal end of a uterine horn; 1F when a male fetus was adjacent to one other male fetus; and 0F when located between two other male fetuses within a uterine horn. For female fetuses, these were labelled 2M when located between two male fetuses within a uterine horn; 1M, when adjacent to a single male fetus either within a uterine horn or at its fundal end; and 0M, when a female fetus has no direct contact to a male fetus. At the cervical end of each horn, where the uterus bifurcates, the last fetuses in left and right horns are in direct contact, similar to those within a uterine horn, and were accordingly labeled.

Bottom Line: Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig.At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation.At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FBN Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus